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who recommended his state to espouse the side of the Romans at the beginning < f the war between Home and Perseus, b. c. 171. (Polyb. xxyii. 6. § 3, xxviii. 2. § 3.)

AGATHARCHIDES (^aflapx^s), or AGATHARCHUS (AydQapXos), a Greek gram­marian., born at Cnidos. He was brought up by a man of the name of Cinnaeus; was, as Strabo (xvi. p. 779) informs us, attached to the Peripa­tetic school of philosophy, and wrote several historical and geographical works. In his youth he held the situation of secretary and reader to Heraclides Lembus, who (according to Suidas) lived in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor. This king died B. c. 146. He himself informs us (in his work on the Erythraean Sea), that he was sub­sequently guardian to one of the kings of Egypt during his minority. This was no doubt one of the two sons of Ptolemy Physcon. Dodwell en­deavours to shew that it was the younger son, Alexander, and objects to Soter, that he reigned conjointly with his mother. This, however, was the case with Alexander likewise. Wesseling and Clinton think the elder brother to be the one meant, as Soter II. was more likely to have been a minor on his accession in B. c. 117, than Alexan­der in b. c. 107, ten years after their father's death. Moreover DodwelTs date would leave too short an interval between the publication of Aga­tharchides1 s work on the Erythraean Sea (about j3. c. 113), and the work of Artemidorus.

An enumeration of the works of Agatharchides is given by Photius (Cod. 213). He wrote a work on Asia, in 10 books, and one on Europe, in 49 books; a geographical work on the Ery­thraean Sea, in 5 books, of the first and fifth books of which Photius gives an abstract; an epitome of the last mentioned work ; a treatise on the Troglodytae, in 5 books; an epitome of the Ai/'S?) of Antimachus; an epitome of the works of those who had written irepl t-yjs (rwaywyfis Qav-juao-tW dvejjiuiv ; an historical work, from the 12th and 30th books of which Athenaeus quotes (xii. p. 527, b. vi. p. 251, f.); and a treatise on the intercourse of friends. The first three of these only had been read by Photius. Agathar­chides composed his work on the Erythraean Sea, as he tells us himself, in his old age (p. 14, ed. Huds.), in the reign probably of Ptolemy Soter II. It appears to have contained a great deal of valu­able matter. In the first book was a discussion respecting the origin of the name. In the fifth he described the mode of life amongst the Sabaeans in Arabia, and the Ichthyophagi, or fish-eaters, the way in which elephants were caught by the elephant-eaters, and the mode of working the gold mines in the mountains of Egypt, near the Red Sea. His account of the Ichthyophagi and of the mode of working the gold mines, has been copied by Diodorus. (iii. 12—18.) Amongst other ex­traordinary animals he mentions the camelopard, which was found in the country of the Troglo­dytae, and the rhinoceros.

Agatharchides wrote in the Attic dialect. His style, according to Photius, was dignified and per­spicuous, and abounded in sententious passages, •which inspired a favourable opinion of his judg­ment. In the composition of his speeches he was an imitator of Thucydides, whom he equalled in dignity and excelled in clearness. His rhetorical talents also, are highly praised by Photius. He


was acqiiain'^d with the language of the Aethio-pians (de Ruhr. M. p. 46), and appears to have been the first who discovered the true cause of the yearly inundations of the Nile. (Diod. i. 41.)

An Agatharchides, of Samos, is mentioned by Plutarch, as the author of a work on Persia, and one Trepi XiQwv. Fabricius, however, conjectures that the true reading is Agathyrsides, not Aga­tharchides. (Dodwell in Hudson's Geogr. Script. Gr. Minores; Clinton, Fasti Hell, iii p. 535.) [C.P.M.]

There is a curious observation by Agatharchides preserved by Plutarch (Sympos. viii. 9. § 3), of the species of worm called Filaria Medinensis, or Guinea Worm, which is the earliest account of it that is to be met with. See Justus Weihe, De Filar. Medin. Comment., Berol. 1832, 8vo., and especially the very learned work by G. H. Welschius, De Vena Medinensi, fyc., August. Vindel. 1674, 4to. [W. A. G.j

AGATHARCHUS (yA.yd8apXos\ a Syracusan, who was placed by the Syracusans over a fleet of twelve ships in b.c. 413, to visit their allies and harass the Athenians. He was afterwards, in the same year, one of the Syracusan commanders in the decisive battle fought in the harbour of Syra­cuse. (Thuc. vii. 25, 70 ; Oiod. xiii. 13.)

AGATHARCHUS (AydeaPXos), an Athenian artist, said by Vitruvius (Praef. ad lib. vii.) to have invented scene-painting, and to have painted a scene (scenam fecit) fora tragedy which Aeschylus exhibited, As this appears to contradict Aristotle's assertion (Poet. 4. § i 6), that scene-painting was introduced by Sophocles, some scholars understand Vitruvius to mean merely, that Agatharchus con­structed a stage. (Compare Hor. Ep. ad Pis. 279 : et modicis instravit puJpita iignis.} But the context shews clearly that perspective painting must be meant, for Vitruvius goes on to say, that Democritus and Anaxagoras, carrying out the principles laid down in the treatise of Agatharchus, wrote on tho same subject, shewing how, in drawing, the lines ought to be made to correspond, according to a nn-tural proportion, to the figure which would be traced out on an imaginary intervening plane by a pencil of rays proceeding from the eye, as a fixed point of sight, to the several points of the object viewed.

It was probably not till towards the end of Aeschylus's career that scene-painting was intro­duced, and not till the time of Sophocles that it was generally made use of; which may account for what Aristotle says.

There was another Greek painter of the name of Agatharchus, who was a native of the island of Samos, and the son of Eudemus. He was a con­temporary of Alcibiades and Zeuxis. We have no definite accounts respecting his performances, but he does not appear to have been an artist of much merit: he prided himself chiefly on the ease and rapidity with which he finished his works. (Pint* Pericl. 13.) Plutarch (Alcib. 16) and Andocides at greater length (in Alcib. p. 31.15) tell an anecdote of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharchus to his house and kept him there for more than three months in strict durance, compelling him to adorn it with his pencil. The speech of Andocides above referred to seems to have been delivered after the destruction of Melos (b. c. 416) and before the expedition to Sicily (b. c. 415); so that from the above data the age of Agatharchus may be accu­rately fixed. Some scholars (as Bentley, Bottiger^ and Mcyer) have supposed him to be the same as

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