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africanus:

Medicine, first in a Latin translation by J. Ruel-lius, Par. 1530, fol., and afterwards in Greek, Bas. 1537, 4to. edited by Grynaeus. [W. A. G.]

AFRICANUS, SEX. CAECI'LIUS, a clas­sical Roman jurisconsult, who lived under Anto­ninus Pius. He was probably a pupil of Salvius Julianus, the celebrated reformer of the Edict under Hadrian. [julianus, salvius.] He con­sulted Julian on legal subjects (Dig. 25. tit. 3. s. 3. § 4), and there is a controverted passage in the Digest {Africanus libra vicesimo Epidolarum apud Julianum quaerit, &c. Dig. 30. tit. i. s. 39), which has been explained in various ways; either that lie published a legal correspondence which passed between him and Julianus, or that he commented upon the epistolaiy opinions given by Julianus in answer to the letters of clients, or that" he wrote a commentary upon Julianus in the form of letters. On the other hand, Julianus "ex Sexto" is quoted by Gaius (ii. 218), which shews that Julianus an-notated Sextus, the formula " ex Sexto" being synonymous with "ad Sextum." (Neuber, die jurist. Klassiker, 8. 9.) Who was Sextus but Africanus ? Africanus was the author of " Libri ] X Quaestionum," from which many pure extracts are made in the Digest, as ma}'- be seen in Hom-mers " Palingenesia Pandectarum," where the ex­tracts from each jurist are brought together, and those that are taken from Africanus occupy 26 out of about 1800 pages.

From his remains, thus preserved in the Digest,

it is evident that he was intimately acquainted with the opinions of Julianus, who is the person alluded to when, without any expressed nominative, he uses the words ait, axistimavit, nc.gavit, putavit, inquit, respondit, placet, notat. This is proved by Cujas from a comparison of some Greek scholia on the Basilica with parallel extracts from Africanus in the Digest. Paullus and Ulpian have done Africanus the honour of citing his authority. He was fond of antiquarian lore (Dig. 7. tit. 7. s. 1, pr. where the true reading is S. Caecilius, not S.Aelius), and his "Libri IX Quaestionum," from the con­ciseness of the style, the great subtlety of the rea­soning, and the knottiness of the points discussed, so puzzled the old glossators, that when they came to an extract from Africanus, they were wont to exclaim Africani hoc, id est diffitilis. (Heinecc. Hist. Jur. Rom. § cccvi. n.) Mascovius (de Sect-is Jur. 4. § 3) supposes that Africanus belonged to the legal sect of the Sabiniani [capito], and as our author was a steady follower of Salvius Julianus, who was a Sabinian (Gaius, ii. 217, 218), this .supposition may be regarded as established. In the time of Antoninus Pius, the distinction of schools or sects had not yet worn out.

Among the writers of the lives of ancient law­yers (Pancirollus, Jo. Bertrandus, Grotius, &c.) much dispute has arisen as to the time when Afri­canus wrote, in consequence of a corrupt or erro­neous passage in Lampridius (Lamp, Alcoc. Sev. 68), which would make him a friend of Severus Alex­ander and a disciple of Papinian. Cujas ingeniously and satisfactorily disposes of this anachronism by referring to the internal evidence of an extract from Africanus (Dig. 3£. tit. 1. s. 109), which as­sumes the validity of a legal maxim that was no longer in force when Papinian wrote.

For reasons which it would be tedious to detail, we hold, contrary to the opinion of Menage (Amoen. Jur. c. 23), that our Sextus Caecilius Africanus is

AFRICANUS.

identical with the jurist sometimes mentioned iir the Digest by the name Caecilius or S. Caecilius, and also with that S. Caecilius whose dispute with Favorinus forms an amusing and interesting chapter in the Noctes Atticae. (Gell. xx. 1.) Geilius per­haps draws to some extent upon his own invention, but, at all events, the lawyer's defence of the XII Tables against the attacks of the philosopher is "ben trovato." There is something humorously cruel in the concluding stroke of the conversation, in the pedantic way in which our jurisconsult vin­dicates the decemviral law against debtors—partis secardo, &c.—by the example of Metius Fufetius, and the harsh sentiment of Virgil :

"At tu dictis, Albane, maneres."

The remains of Africanus have been admirably expounded by Cujas {ad Africanum tractatus IX. in Cujac. Opp. vol. 1), and have also been annotated by Scipio Gentili. (Scip. Gentilis, Diss. I-IX ad Africanum, 4to. Altdorf. 1602-7.)

(Strauchius, Vitae aliquot veterum jurisconsul- torum, 8vo. Jen. 1723 ; I. Zimmern, Rom. Rcclits- geschiclite, § 94.) [J. T. G.]

AFRICANUS, JU'LIUS, a celebrated orator in the reign of Nero, seems to have been the son of Julius Africanus. of the Gallic state of the San-toni, who was condemned by Tiberius, A. d. 32. (Tac. Ann. vi. 7.) Quintilian, who had heard Juliua Africanus, speaks of him and Domitius Afer as the best orators of their time. The elo­quence of Africanus was chiefly characterised by vehemence and energy. (Quintil. x. 1. § 118, xii. 10. § 11, comp. viii. 5. § 15 ; Dial, de Orai. 15.) Pliny mentions a grandson of this Julius Africanus, who was also an advocate and was opposed to him upon one occasion. {Ep. vii. 6.) He was consul suffectus in a. d. 108.

AFRICANUS, SEX. JU'LIUS, a Christian writer at the beginning of the third century, is called by Suidas a Libyan (s. v. 3A(ppiKav6s], but passed the greater part of his life at Emmaus in Palestine, where, according to some, he was born, (Jerome, de Vir. III. 63.) When Emmaus was destroyed by fire, Africanus was sent to Elagabalus to solicit its restoration, in which mission he suc­ceeded: the new town was called Nicopolis. (a. d. 221, Eusebius, Chron. sub anno ; Syncellus, p. 359, b.) Africanus subsequently went to Alexan­dria to hear the philosopher Heraclas, who was afterwards bishop of Alexandria. The later Syrian writers state, that he was subsequently made bishop. He was one of the most learned of the early Christian writers. Socrates (Hist. Eccl. ii. 35) classes him with Origen and Clement; and it appears from his letter on the History of Susanna, that he was acquainted with Hebrew.

The chief work of Africanus was a Chronicon in five books {irwrdSiSXiov ^poFoAoyt/ctff), from the creation of the world, which he placed in 5499 b. c. to a. d. 221, the fourth year of the reign of Elagabalus. This work is lost, but a con­siderable part of it is extracted by Eusebius in his " Chronicon," and many fragments of it are also preserved byGeorgius Syncellus, Cedrenus, and in the Paschale Chronicon. (See Ideler, Handbuclt d. Chronol. vol. ii. p. 456, &c.) The fragments of this work are given by Gallandi (Bibl. Pat.), and R,outh {Reliquiae Sacrae].

Africanus wrote a letter to Origen impugning the authority of the book of Susanna, to which

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