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AFRANIUS.

senator Licinius Buccio, a very litigious wo­man, who always pleaded her own causes before the praetor, and thus gave occasion to the publish­ing of the edict, which forbade all women to postu­late. She was perhaps the sister of L. Afranius, consul in b. o. 60. She died b. c. 48. (Val. Max. viii. 3. § 1 ; Dig. 3. tit. 1. s. 1. § 5.)

AFRANIA GENS, plebeian, is first mentioned in the second century B. c. The only cognomen of this gens, which occurs under the republic, is stellio : those names which have no cognomen are given under afranius. Some persons of this name evidently did not belong to the Afrania Gens. On coins we find only S. Afranius and M. Afra­nius, of whom nothing is known. (Eckhel, v. p. 132, &c.)

AFRANIUS. 1. L. afranius, a Roman comic poet, who lived at the beginning of the first century b. c. His comedies described Roman scenes and manners (Comoediae togatae\ and the subjects were mostly taken from the life of the lower classes. (Comoediae tabernariae.} They were frequently polluted with disgraceful amours, which, according to Quintilian, were only a representation of the conduct of Afranius. (x. 1. § 100.) He depicted, however, Roman life with such accuracy, that he is classed with Menander, from whom indeed he borrowed largely. (Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 57 ; Macrob. Sat. vi. 1 ; Cic. de Fin. i. 3.) He imitated the style of C. Titius, and his language is praised by Cicero. (Brut. 45.) His comedies are spoken of in the highest terms by the ancient writers, and under the empire they not only continued to be read, but were even acted, of which an example occurs in the time of Nero. (Veil. Pat. i. 17, ii. 19; Gell. xiii. 8 ; Suet. Ner. 11.) They seem to have been well known even at the latter end of the fourth century. (Auson. Epigr. 71.) Afranius must have written a great many comedies, as the names and fragments of between twenty and thirty are still preserved. These fragments have been published by Bothe, Poet. Lat. Scenic. Fragmenta, and by Neukirch, Defabula togata Roman.

2. L. afranius, appears to have been of ob­scure origin, as he is called by Cicero in contempt "the son of Aulus," as a person of whom nobody had heard. (Cic. ad Ait. i. 16, 20.) He was first brought into notice by Pompey, and was always his warm friend and partizan. In b. c. 77 he was one of Pompey's legates in the war against Serto-rius in Spain, and also served Pompey in the same capacity in the Mithridatic war. (Plut. Sert. 19. Pomp. 34, 36, 39; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 5.) On Pompey's return to Rome, he was anxious to ob­tain the consulship for Afranius, that he might the more easily carry his own plans into effect; and, not-withstanding the opposition of a powerful party, he obtained the election of Afranius by influence and bribery. During his consulship, however, (b. c. 60), Afranius did not do much for Pompey (Dion Cass. xxxvii. 49), but probably more from want of experience in political affairs than from any want of inclination. In b. c. 59 Afranius had the province of Cisalpine Gaul (comp. Cic. ad Att. i. 19), and it may have been owing to some advan­tages he had gained over the Gauls, that he ob­tained the triumph, of which Cicero speaks in his oration against Piso. (c. 24.)

When Pompey obtained the provinces of the two Spains in his second consulship (b. c. 55), he sent Afranius and Petreius to govern Spain

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AFRICANUS.

in his name, while he himself remained in Rome. (Veil. Pat. ii. 48.) On the breaking out of the civil war, b. c. 49, Afranius was still in Spain with three legions, and after uniting his forces with those of Petreius, he had to oppose Caesar in the same year, who had crossed over into Spain as soon as he had obtained posses­sion of Italy. After a short campaign, in which Afranius and Petreius gained some advantages at first, they were reduced to such straits, that they were obliged to sue for the. mercy of Caesar. This was granted, on condition that their troops should be disbanded, and that they should not serve against him again. (Caes. B. C. i. 38-86; Appian, B. C. ii. 42. 43 5 Dion Cass, xli. 20-23; Plut. Pomp. 65, Caes. 36.) Afranius, however, did not keep his word ; he immediately joined Pompey at Dyrrhacium, where he was accused by some of the aristocracy, though certainly without justice, of treachery in Spain. After the battle of Dyrrha­cium, Afranius recommended an immediate return to Italy, especially as Pompey was master of the sea; but this advice was overruled, and the battle of Pharsalia followed, B. c. 48, in which Afranius had the charge of the camp. (Appian, B. C. ii. 65, 76; Plut. Pomp. 66; Dion Cass. xli. 52; Veil. Pat. ii. 52.) As Afranius was one of those who could not hope for pardon, he fled to Africa, and joined the Pompeian army under Cato and Scipio. (Dion Cass. xlii. 10.) After the defeat of the Pompeians at the battle of Thapsus, b. c. 46, at which he was present, he attempted to fly into Mauritania with Faustus Sulla and about 1500 horsemen, but was taken prisoner by P. Sittius, and killed a few days afterwards, according to some accounts, in a sedition of the soldiers, and according to others, by the command of Caesar. (Hirt. Bell. Afric. 95 ; Suet. Caes. 75 ; Dion Cass. xliii. 12; Floras, iv. 2. § 90; Liv. Epit. 114; Aur. Vict. de Vir. III. 78.)

Afranius seems to have had some talent for war, but little for civil affairs. Dion Cassius says " that he was a better dancer than a statesman " (xxxvii 49), and Cicero speaks of him with the greatest contempt during his consulship (ad. Att. i. 18, 20), though at a later time, when Afranius was opposed to Caesar, he calls him smnmus dux. (Phil. xiii. 14.)

3. L. Afranius, son of the preceding, negotiated with Caesar in Spain through Sulpicius for his own and his father's preservation. He afterwards went as a hostage to Caesar. (Caes. B. C. i. 74. 84.)

4. afranius potitus. [potitus.]

5. afranius burrus. [burrus.]

6. afranius quinctianus. [quinctianus.]

7. afranius dexter. [dexter.]

8. T. afranius or T. afrenius, not a Roman, was one of the leaders of the Italian confederates in the Marsic war, B. c. 90. In conjunction with Judacilius and P. Ventidius he defeated the legate Pompeius Strabo, and pursued him into Firmum, before which, however, he was defeated in his turn, and was killed in the battle. (Appian, B. G» i. 40, 47 ; Florus, iii. 18.)

AFRICANUS. [Scipio.]

AFRICANUS (sA0pi/ca//os), a writer on vet", rinary surgery, whose date is not certainly known, but who may very probably be the same person as Sex. Julius Africanus, whose work entitled Kearoi contained information upon medical subjects. [africanus, sex. julius.] His remains were published in the Collection of writers on Veterinary

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