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AESCHINES.

from his country under the tyranny of the Thirty, He then served in the Athenian armies in Asia and spent the remainder of his life at Athens, at first in reduced circumstances. (Aesch. De fals. Leg. pp. 38, 47.) His mother, too, was a free Athenian citizen, and the daughter of Glaucias of Acharne. Which of these accounts is true, can­not be decided, but there seems to be no doubt that Demosthenes is guilty of exaggeration in his account of the parents of Aeschines and his early youth.

Aeschines had two brothers, one of whom, Phi-lochares, was older than himself, and the other, Aphobetus, was the youngest of the three. Phi-lochares was at one time one of the ten Athenian generals, an office which was conferred upon him for three successive years ; Aphobetus followed the calling of a scribe, but had once been sent on an embassy to the king of Persia and was after­wards connected with the administration of the public revenue of Athens. (Aesch. De fals. Leg. p. 48.) All these things seem to contain strong evidence that the family of Aeschines, although poor, must have been of some respectability. Re­specting his early youth nothing can be said with certainty, except that he assisted his father in his school, and that afterwards, being of a strong and athletic constitution, he was employed in the gymnasia for money, to contend with other young men in their exercises. (Dem. De Coron. p. 313; Plut. Vit. x orat. Aesch. p. 840.) It is a favourite custom of late writers to place great orators, philo­sophers, poets, &c.? in the relation of teacher and scholar to one another, and accordingly Aeschines is represented as a disciple of Socrates, Plato, and Isocrates. If these statements, which are even contradicted by the ancients themselves, were true, Aeschines would not have omitted to men­tion it in the many opportunities he had. The distinguished orator and statesman Aristophon en­gaged Aeschines as a scribe, and in the same capacity he afterwards served Eubulus, a man of great influence with the democratical party, with whom he formed an intimate friendship, and to whose political principles he remained faithful to the end of his life. That he served two years as -Trep/TToAos, from his eighteenth to his twentieth year, as all young men at Athens did, Aeschines (De fals. Leg. p. 50) expressly states, and this period of his military training must probably be placed before the time that he acted as a scribe to Aristophon ; for we find that, after leaving the service of Eubulus, he tried his fortune as an actor, for which he was provided by nature with a strong and sonorous voice. He acted the parts of rptra-yMVicrr^fy but was unsuccessful, and on one occa­sion, when he was performing in the character of Oenomaus, was hissed off the stage. (Dem. De Coron. p. 288.) After this he left the stage and engaged in military services, in which, accord­ing to his own account (De fals. Leg. p. 50), he gained great distinction. (Comp. Dem. De fals. Leg. p. 375.) After several less important engage­ments in other parts of Greece, he distinguished himself in b. c. 362 in the battle of Mantineia; and afterwards in b. c. 358, he also took part in the expedition of the Athenians against Euboea, and fought in the battle of Tamynae, and on this occasion he gained such laurels, that he was praised by the generals on the spot, and, after the victory was gained, was sent to carry the news of it to

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AESCHINES.

Athens. Temenides, who was sent with him, bore witness to his courage and bravery, and the Athenians honoured him with a crown. (Aesch. Defals Leg. p. 51.)

Two years before this campaign, the last in which he took part, he had come forward at Athens as a public speaker (Aesch. Epist. 12), and the military fame which he had now acquired estab­lished his reputation. His former occupation as a scribe to Aristophon and Eubulus had made him acquainted with the laws and constitution of Athens, while his acting on the stage had been a useful preparation for public speaking. During the first period of his public career, he was, like all other Athenians, zealously engaged in directing the attention of his fellow-citizens to the growing-power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in its growth. After the fall of Olynthus in b. c. 348, Eubulus prevailed on the Athenians to send an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of uniting the Greeks against the common enemy, and Aeschines was sent to Arcadia. Here Ae£-chines spoke at Megalopolis against Hieronymus, an emissary of Philip, but without success ; and from this moment Aeschines, as well as all his fellow-citizens, gave up the hope of effecting any­thing by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. De fals. Leg. pp. 344,438 ; Aesch. Defals. Leg. p. 38.) When therefore Philip, in b. c. 347, gave the Athenians to understand that he was inclined to make peace with them, Philocrates urged the ne­cessity of sending an embassy to Philip to treat on the subject. Ten men, and among them Aeschines and Demosthenes, were accordingly sent to Philip, who received them with the utmost politeness, and Aescliines, when it was his turn to speak, re­minded the king of the rights which Athens had to his friendship and alliance. The king promised to send forthwith ambassadors to Athens to nego­tiate the terms of peace. After the return of the Athenian ambassadors they were each rewarded with a wreath of olive, on the proposal of Demos­thenes, for the manner in which they had dis­charged their duties. Aeschines from this moment forward was inflexible in his opinion, that nothing but peace with Philip could avert utter ruin from his country. That this was perfectly in accordance with what Philip wished is clear, but there is no reason for supposing, that Aeschines had been, bribed into this opinion, or that he urged the necessity of peace with a view to ruin his country. (Aesch. in Ctesipli. p. 62.) Antipater and two other Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athena soon after the return of the Athenian ones, and after various debates Demosthenes urgently advised the people to conclude the peace, and speedily to send other ambassadors to Philip to receive his oath to it. The only difference between Aeschines and Demosthenes was, that the former would have, concluded the peace even without providing for, the Athenian allies, which was happily prevented by Demosthenes. Five Athenian ambassadors, and among them Aeschines but not Demosthenes (De Coron. p. 235), set out for Macedonia the more speedily, as Philip was making war upon Cersobleptes, a Thracian prince and ally of Athens. They went to Pella to wait for the arrival of Philip from Thrace, and were kept there for a con­siderable time, for Philip did not come until he had completely subdued Cersobleptes. At last,, however, he swore to the peace, from which the

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