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AENEAS.

xiii. 463, &c.) At the beginning of the war of the Greeks against Troy he did not take any part in it, and the poet intimates that there existed an ill feeling between him and Priam, who did not pay sufficient honour to Aeneas. (II. xiii. 460, &c., xx. 181.) This probably arose from a decree of destiny, according to which Aeneas and his de­scendants were to rule over Troy, since the house of Priam had drawn upon itself the hatred of Cronion. (II. xx. 307.) One day when Aeneas was tending his flocks on mount Ida, he was attacked by Achilles, who took his cattle and put him to flight. But he was rescued by the gods. This event, however, and the admonition of Apollo, roused his spirit, and he led his Dardanians against the Greeks. (II. xx. 89, &c., 190, &c., ii. 819, &c.) Henceforth he and Hector are the great bulwarks of the Trojans against the Greeks, and Aeneas ap­pears beloved and honoured by gods and men. (II. xi. 58, xvi. 619, v. 180, 467, vi. 77, &c.) He is among the Trojans what Achilles is among the Greeks. Both are sons of immortal mothers, both are at feud with the kings, and both possess horses of divine origin. (II. v. 265, &c.) Achilles him­self, to whom Hector owns his inferiority, thinks Aeneas a worthy competitor. (//. xx. 175.) The place which Aeneas occupies among the Trojans is well expressed in Philostratus (Her. 13), who says that the Greeks called Hector the hand, and Aeneas the soul of the Trojans. Respecting the brave and noble manner in which he protects the body of his friend Panclarus, see II. v. 299. On one occasion he was engaged in a contest with Diomedes, who hurled a mighty stone at him and broke his hip. Aeneas fell to the ground, and Aphrodite hastened to his assistance (II. v. 305), and when she too was wounded, Apollo carried him from the field of battle to his temple, where he was cured by Leto and Artemis. (II. v. 345, &c.) In the attack of the Trojans upon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas commanded the fourth host of the Trojans. (//. xii. 98.) He avenged the death of Alcathous by slaying Oenomaus and Aphareus, and hastened to the assistance of Hector, who was thrown on the ground by Ajax. The last feat Homer mentions is his fight with Achilles. On this as on all other occasions, a god interposed and saved him, and this time it was by Poseidon, who although in general hostile towards the Trojans, yet rescued Aeneas, that the decrees of destiny might be fulfilled, and Aeneas and his offspring might one day rule over Troy. (//. xx. 178, &c., 305, &c.) Thus far only is the story of Aeneas to be gathered from the Homeric poems, and far from alluding to Aeneas having emigrated after the capture of Troy, and having founded a new kingdom in a foreign land, the poet distinctly intimates that he conceives Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at Troy after the extinction of the house of Priam. (Comp. Strab. xiii. p. 608.)

Later Stories. According to the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite (257, &c.), Aeneas was brought up by the nymphs of mount Ida, and was not taken to his father Anchises, until he had reached his fifth year, and then he was, according to the wish of the goddess, given out as the son of a nymph. Xenophon (De Venat. 1. § 15) says, that he was instructed by 'Cheiron, the usual teacher of the heroes. According to the " Cypria," he even took part in carrying off Helen. His bravery in the war against the Greeks is mentioned in the later

AENEAS.

traditions as well as in the earlier ones. (Hygin. Fab. 115 ; Philostr. I. c.) According to some ac­counts Aeneas was not present when Troy was taken, as he had been sent by Priam on an expe­dition to Phrygia, while according to others he was requested by Aphrodite, just before the fall of the city, to leave it, and accordingly went to mount Ida, carrying his father on his shoulders. (Dion. Hal. i. 48.) A third account makes him hold out at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disappeared, Aeneas with his Dardanians and the warriors of Ophrynium withdrew to the citadel of Pergamus, where the most costly treasures of the Trojans were kept. Here he repelled the enemy and re­ceived the fugitive Trojans, until he could hold out no longer. He then sent the people ahead to mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, the images of the gods., his father, his wife, and his children, hoping that he would be able to maintain himself on the heights of mount Ida. But being threatened with an attack by the Greeks, he entered into negotiations with them, in consequence of which he surrendered his position and was allowed to depart in safety with his friends and treasures. (Dionys. i. 46, &c.; Aelian, V. H. iii. 22 ; Hygin. Fab. 254.) Others again related that he was led by his hatred of Paris to betray Ilion to the Greeks, and was allowed to depart free and safe in consequence. (Dionys. I.e.} Livy (i. 1) states, that Aeneas and An tenor were the only Trojans against whom the Greeks did not make use of their right of conquest, on account of an ancient connexion of hospitality existing be­tween them, or because Aeneas had always advised his countrymen to restore Helen to Menelaus. (Comp. Strab. I. c.)

The farther part of the story of Aeneas, after leaving mount Ida with his friends and the images of the gods, especially that of Pallas (Palladium, Paus. ii. 23. § 5) presents as many variations as that relating to the taking of Troy. All accounts, however, agree in stating that he left the coasts of Asia and crossed over into Europe. According to some he went across the Hellespont to the penin­sula of Pallene and died there ; according to others he proceeded from Thrace to the Arcadian Orcho-menos and settled there. (Strab. 1. c.; Paus. viii. 12. § 5; Dionys. Hal. i. 49.) By far the greater number of later writers, however, anxious to put him in connexion with the history of Latium and to make him the ancestorial hero of the Romans, state that he went to Italy, though some assert that the Aeneas who came to Italy was not the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and others that after his arrival in Italy he returned to Troy, leaving his son Ascanius behind him. (Lycophr. 1226, &c. ; Dionys. i. 53 ; Liv. i. 1.) A de­scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he reached the coast of Latium, and of the various towns and temples he was believed to have found­ed during his wanderings, is given by Dionysius (i. 50, &c.), whose account is on the whole the same as that followed by Virgil in his Aeneid, although the latter makes various embellishments and additions, some of which, as his landing at Carthage and meeting with Dido, are irreconcilable with chronology. From Pallene (Thrace), where Aeneas stayed the winter after the taking of Troy, and founded the-town of Aeneia on the Thermaic gulf (Liv. xl. 4), he sailed with his companions to Delos, Cythera (where he founded a temple of

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