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Artis Principes of H. Stephens, Par. 1567, fol. (Freind's Hist, of Physic; Sprengel, Hist, de la Med.; Haller, Biblioth. Medic. Pract.; Barchusen, Hist. Medic.) [W. A. G.]
ACULEO occurs as a surname of C. Furius who was quaestor of L. Scipio, and was condemned of peculatus. (Liv. xxxviii. 55.) Acu-leo, however, seems not to have "been a regular family-name of the Furia gens, but only a surname given to this person, of which a similar example occurs in the following article.
C. ACULEO, a Roman knight, who married the sister of Helvia, the mother of Cicero. He was surpassed by no one in his day in his knowledge of the Roman law, and possessed great acuteness of mind, but was not distinguished for other attainments. He was a friend of L. Licinius Crassus, and was defended by him upon one occasion. The son of Aculeo was C. Visellius Varro ; whence it would appear that Aculeo was only a surname given to the father from his acuteness, and that his full name was C. Visellius Varro Aculeo. (Cic. de Or. i. 43, ii. 1, 65 ; Brut. 76.)
ACUMENUS ('AKotviez/o's), a physician of Athens, who lived in the fifth century before Christ, and is mentioned as the friend and companion of Socrates. (Plat. Pliaedr. init.; Xen. Memor. 'ill. 13. § 2.) He was the father of Eryximachus, who was also a physician, and who is introduced as one of the speakers in Plato's Symposium. (Plat. Protag. p, 315, c. ; Symp. p, 176, c,) He is also mentioned in the collection of letters first published by Leo Allatius, Paris, 1637, 4to. with the title Episi. Socralis ct Socraticorum, and again by Orel-lius, Lips. 1815. Svo. ep. 14. p. 31. [W. A. G.]
ACUSILAUS ('AKovo-fAaos), of Argos, one of the earlier Greek logographers (Diet, of Ant. p. 575, a.), who probably lived in the latter half of the sixth century b. c. He is called the son of Cabras or Scabras, and is reckoned by some among the Seven Wise Men. Suidas (s. i?.) says, that he wrote Genealogies from bronze tablets, which his father was said to have dug up in his own house. Three books of his Genealogies are quoted, which were for the most part only a translation of Hesiocl. into prose. (Clem. Strom. vi. p. 629, a.) Like most of the other logographers, he wrote in the Ionic dialect. Plato is the earliest writer by whom he is mentioned. (Symp. p. 178, b.) The works which bore the name of AciisilaUs in a later age, were spurious, (s. v. 'Etcarcuos Mi/YnVjo.?, 'Iffroprjcrai, 2iry7joa<£w.) The fragments of Acusilatis have been published by Sturtz, Gerae, 1787 ; 2nd eel. Lips. 1824 ; and in the " Museum Criticum," i. p. 216, &c. Camb. 1826.
M. ACU'TIUS, tribune of the plebs b. c. 401, was elected by the other tribunes (by co-optation) in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Liv. v. 10 ; Diet, of Ant. p. 566, a.)
ADA ("A5a), the daughter of Hecatomnus, king of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, Idrieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to her brother Iclrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in B. c. 351 and died b. c. 344. On the death of her husband she succeeded to the throne of Caria, but was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in b. c. 340; and on the death of the latter in b. c. 335 his son-in-law Orontobates received the satrapy of Caria from the Persian king. When Alexander entered Caria in b. c. 334, Ada, who was in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surrendered this place to
him and begged leave to adopt him as her son. After taking Halicarnassus, Alexander committed the government of Caria to her. (Arrian, Anab. i. 23; Diod. xvi. 42, 74 ; Strab. xiv. pp. 656, 657 ; Pint. Alex. 10.)
ADAEUS, or ADDAEUS ('ASatosor'ASScwos), a Greek epigrammatic poet, a native most probably of Macedonia. The epithet Ma/ceSofos is appended to his name before the third epigram in the Vat. MS. (Anili. Gr. vi. 228) ; and the subjects of the second, eighth, ninth, and tenth epigrams agree with this account of his origin. He lived in the time of Alexander the Great, to whose death he alludes. (Anth. Gr. vii. 240.) The fifth epigram (Anth. Gr. vii. 305) is inscribed 'ASScuov MtTuATjfaiou, and there was a Mitylenaean of this name, who wrote two prose wroks Tlepl 'Aya^aToiroitov and Hspl Atafleo-ecos. (Athen. xiii. p. 606. a, xi. p. 471, f.) The time when he lived cannot be fixed with certainty. Reiske, though on insufficient grounds, believes these two to be the same person. (Anth. Grace, vi. 228, 2589 vii. 51, 238, 240, 305, x. 20 ; Brunck, Anal. ii. p. 224 ; Jacobs, xiii. p. 831.) [C. P. M.]
ADAMANTIUS ('ASa/udw/Tios), an ancient physician,bearing the title of latrosophista (larpiKojv Aoyow aofpurrijs) Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 13), for the meaning of which see Diet, of Ant. p. 507. Little is known of his personal history, except that he was by birth a Jew, and that he was one of those who fled from Alexandria, at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from that city by the Patriarch St. Cyril, a. d. 415. He went to Constantinople, was persuaded to embrace Chris tianity, apparently by Atticus the Patriarch of that city, and then returned to Alexandria. (Socrates, I, c.) He is the author of a Greek treatise on physiognomy, &vffioyv<*>/ji.oviK&.l in two books, which is still extant, and which is borrowed in a great measure (as he himself confesses, i. Prooem. p. 314, ed. Franz.) from Polemo's work on the same subject. It is dedicated to Constantius, who is supposed by Fabricius (Biblioth. Graeca, vol. ii. p. 171, xiii. 34, ed. vet.) to be the person who mar ried Placidia, the daughter of Theodosius the Great, and who reigned for seven months in con junction with the Emperor IIonorius. It was first published in Greek at Paris, 1540, 8vo., then in Greek and Latin at Basle, 1544, 8vo., and after wards in Greek, together with Aelian, Polemo and some other writers, at Rome, 1545, 4to.; the last and best edition is that by J. G. Franzius, who has inserted it in his collection of the Sc-riptores Physi- ognomiae Veteres, Gr. et Lat., Altenb. 1780, 8vo. Another of his works, U&pi *Kvk^av, De, Ventis, is quoted by the Scholiast to Hesiod, and an extract from it is given by Ae'this (tetrab. i. serm. 3, c. 163); it is said to be still in existence in manu script in the Royal Library at Paris. Several of his medical prescriptions are preserved by Oriba- sius and Aethis. [W. A. G.]
ADEIMANTUS ('AScfcai/Tos). 1. The son of Ocytus, the Corinthian commander in the invasion of Greece by Xerxes. Before the battle of Arte-misium he threatened to sail away, but was bribed by Themistocles to remain. He opposed Themis-tocles with great insolence in the council which the commanders held before the battle of Salamis. According to the Athenians he took to flight at the very commencement of the battle, but this