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On this page: Acrotatus – Actaea – Actaeon – Actaeus – Acte – Actiacus



The history of Michael Palaeologus by Pachymeres may be considered as a continuation of the work of Acropolita. Besides this work, Acropolita wrote several orations, which he delivered in his capacity as great logotheta, and as director of the negociations with the pope; but these orations have not been published. Fabricius (vol. vii. p. 471) speaks of a MS. which has the title Tiepl rcav diro /mVec Koar/jLov it&v Kal ircpl t&v pacrLAevffdvTwv fte'x aAwcrecos K&vorTctVTivovTrotews. Georgius, or Gre- gorius Cyprius, who has written a short encomium of Acropolita, calls him the Plato and the Aristotle oJ his time. This "encomium" is printed with a La­ tin translation at the head of the edition of Acro­ polita by Th. Douza: it contains useful information concerning Acropolita, although it is full of adula­ tion. Further information is contained in Acropo­ lis history, especially in the latter part of it, and in Pachymeres, iv. 28, vi. 26, 34, seq. [W. P.] ACROREITES (*AKpcopelrr)s), a surname ot Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Sicyon, and which is synonymous with Eriphius, under which name he was worshipped at Meta- pontum in southern Italy. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'A/cpwpefo.) [L. S.]

ACROTATUS ('AKpSraros). 1. The son of Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displea­sure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the de­cree, which was to release from infamy all who had fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated Agis, b.c. 331. He was thus glad to accept the offer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta for assistance in b. c. 314 against Agathocles of Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained assistance from Tarentum; but on his arrival at Agrigentum he acted with such cruelty and tyrannj that the inhabitants rose against him, and com­pelled him to leave the city. He returned to Sparta, and died before the death of his father, which was in b.c. 309. He left a son, Areus, who succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. xv. 70, 7.1 ; Paus. i. 1 3. § 3, iii. 6. § 1, 2 ; Plut. Agis, 3.)

2. The grandson of the preceding, and the son of Areus I. king of Sparta. He had unlawful in­tercourse with Chelidonis, the young wife of Cleo-nymus, who was the uncle of his father Areus; and it was this, together with the disappointment of not obtaining the throne, which led Cleonymus to invite Pyrrhus to Sparta, b. c. 272. Areus was then absent in Crete, and the safety of Sparta was mainly owing to the valour of Acrotatus. He suc­ceeded his father in b. c. 265, but was killed in the same year in battle against Aristodemus, the tyrant of Megalopolis. Pausanias, in speaking of his death, calls him the son of Cleonymus, but he has mistaken him for his grandfather, spoken of above. (Plut. Pyrrli. 26-28; Agis, 3; Paus.iii. 6. § 3, viii. 27. § 8, 30. § 3.) Areus and Acrotatus are ac­cused by Phylarchus (ap. Atlien. iv. p. 142, b.) of having corrupted the simplicity of Spartan man­ners.

ACTAEA (JA/crafa), a daughter of Nereus and Doris. (Horn. II. xviii. 41 ; Apollod. i. 2. § 7 ; Hygin. Fab. p. 7, ed. Staveren.) [L. S.]

ACTAEON ('A/craiW). ]. Son of Aristaeus and Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus. He was trained in the art of hunting by the centaur Chei-ron, and was afterwards torn to pieces by his own 50 hounds on mount Cithaeron. The names of these hounds are given by Ovid (Met. iii. 206, &c.) and Hyginus. (Fab. 181; comp. Stat. Theb. ii. 203.)


The cause of this misfortune is differently stated ; according to some accounts it was because he had seen Artemis while she was bathing in the vale of Gargaphia, on the discovery of which the god­dess changed him into a stag, in which form he was torn to pieces by his own dogs. (Ov. Met. iii. 155, &c.; Ifygin. Fab. 181; Callim. Ji. in Pallad. 110.) Others relate that he provoked the anger of the goddess by his boasting that he ex­celled her in hunting, or by his using for a feast the game which was destined as a sacrifice to her. (Eurip. Baccli. 320; Diod. iv. 81.) A third ac­count stated that he was killed by his dogs at the command of Zeus, because he sued for the hand of Semele. (Acusilaus, ap. Apollod. iii. 4. § 4.) Pau­sanias (ix. 2. § 3) saw near Orchomenos the rock on which Act-aeon used to rest when he was fatigued by hunting, and from which he had seen Artemis in the bath; but he is of opinion that the whole story arose from the circumstance that Actaeon was destroyed by his dogs in a natural fit of mad­ness. Palaephatus (s. v. Actaeon) gives an absurd and trivial explanation of it. According to the Orchomenian tradition the rock of Actaeon was haunted by his spectre, and the oracle of Delphi commanded the Orchomenians to bury the remains of the hero, which they might happen to find, and fix an iron image of him upon the rock. This image still existed in the time of Pausanias (ix. 38. § 4), and the Orchomenians offered annual sa­crifices to Actaeon in that place. The manner in which Actaeon and his mother were painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi, is described by Pausanias. (x. 30. § 2 ; comp. Muller, Orcltom. p. 348, &c.)

2. A son of Melissus, and grandson of Abron, who had fled from Argos to Corinth for fear of the tyrant Pheidon. Archias, a Corinthian, enamour­ ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endeavoured to carry him off; but in the struggle which ensued between Melissus and Archias, Actaeon was killed. Melissus. brought his complaints forward at the Isthmian games, and praying to the gods for re­ venge, he threw himself from a rock. Hereupon Corinth was visited by a plague and drought, and the oracle ordered the Corinthians to propi­ tiate Poseidon, and avenge the death of Actaeon. Upon this hint Archias emigrated to Sicily, where he founded the town of Syracuse. (Pint. Amat. Narr. p. 772 ; comp. Pans. v. 7. § 2 ; Thucyd. vi. 3 ; Strab. viii. p. 380.) [L. S.]

ACTAEUS ('aktcuos). A son of Erisichthon, and according to Pausanias (i. 2. § 5)7 the earliest king of Attica. He had three daughters, Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosus, and was succeed­ed by Cecrops, who married Agraulos. Accord­ing to Apollodorus (iii. 14. 1.) on the other hand, Cecrops was the first king of Attica. [L. S.]

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, was a freed-woman, and originally a slave purchased from Asia Minor. Nero loved her far more than his wife Octavia, and at one time thought of marrying her; whence he pretended that she was descended from king Attalus. She survived Nero. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 12, 46, xiv. 2 ; Suet. Ner. 28, 50 ; Dion Cass. Ixi. 7.)

ACTIACUS, a surname of Apollo, derived from Actium, one of the principal places of his worship. (Ov. Met. xiii. 715; Strab. x. p. 451; compare Burmann, ad Propert. p. 434.) [L. S.] ACTI'SANES ('AKTur&vris), a king of Ethiopia,

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