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ACROPOLITA.

is not known; but, as he is mentioned as being contemporary with Empedocles, who died about the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, he must have lived in the fifth century before Christ. From Sicily he went to Athens, and there opened a philosophical school (eo-o^iar^v&v}. It is said that he was in that city during the great plague (b. c. 430), and that large fires for the purpose of purifying the air were kindled in the streets by his direction, which proved of great service to several of the sick. (Pint. De Is. ei Osir. 80 ; Oriba's. Synops. vi. 24, p. 97; Ae'tius, tetrab. ii. serm. i. 94, p. 223; Paul Aegin, ii. 35, p. 406.) It should however be borne in mind that there is no mention of this in Thucy-dides (ii. 49, &c.), and, if it is true that Em-pedocles or Simonides (who died b. c. 467) wrote the epitaph on Acron, it may be doubted whether he was in Athens at the time of the plague. Upon his return to Agrigentum he was anxious to erect a family tomb, and applied to the senate for a spot of ground for that purpose on account of his eminence as a physician. Empe-docles however resisted this application as being contrary to the principle of equality, and proposed to inscribe on his tomb the following sarcastic epitaph (TwQacmKov), which it is quite impossible to translate so as to preserve the paronomasia of the original: "A/cpov lt]rpov 1/A.'cpcoy' 'AKpa.'yav'r'ii/QV irarpos aicpov

The second line was sometimes read thus: ^AKpordr^s icopvfyrjs rvta§os atcpos Some persons attributed the whole epigram to Simonides. (Suid. s. v. "AKpwv ; Eudoc. Violar.^ ap. Villoison, A need. Gr. i. 49 ; Diog. Laert. viii. 65.) The sect of the Empirici, in order to boast of a greater antiquity than the Dogmatici (founded by Thessalus, the son, and Poly bus, the son-in-law of Hippocrates, about b. c. 400), claimed Acron as their founder (Pseudo-Gal. Introd. 4. vol. xiv. p. 683), though they did not really exist before the third century b. c. [philinus ; sera-pion.] Pliny falls into this anachronism. (//. N. xxix. 4.) None of Acron's works are now extant, though he wrote several in the Doric dialect on Medical and Physical subjects, of which the titles are preserved by Suidas and Eudocia. [W. A. G.] ACRON, HELE'NIUS, a Roman grammarian, probably of the fifth century a. d., but whose pre­cise date is not known. He wrote notes on Ho­race, and also, according to some critics, the scholia which we have on Persius. The fragments which remain of the work on Horace, though much muti­lated, are valuable, as containing the remarks of the older commentators, Q. Terentius Scaurus and others. They were published first by A. Zarotti, Milan, 1474, and again in 1486, and have often been published since in different editions ; perhaps the best is that by Geo. Fabricius, in his ed. of Horace, Basel, 1555, Leipzig, 1571. A writer of the same name, probably the same man, wrote a commentary on Terence, which is lost, but which is referred to by the grammarian Charisius. [A. A.] ^ ACROPOLI'TA, GEORGIUS (Tedpytos 'AtfpTroAiT^s), the son of the great logotheta Con-stantinus Acropolita the elder, belonged to a noble Byzantine family which stood in relationship to the imperial family of the Ducas. (Acropolita, 97.) He was born at Constantinople in 1220 (/&. 39), but accompanied his father in his sixteenth year to

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ACROPOLITA.

Nicaea, the residence of the Greek emperor John Vatatzes Ducas. There he continued and finished his studies under Theodoras Exapterigus and Ni-cephorus Blemmida. (Ib. 32.) The emperor em­ployed him afterwards in diplomatic affairs, and Acropolita shewed himself a very discreet and skilful negociator. In 1255 he commanded the Nicaean army in the war between Michael, des­pot of Epirus, and the emperor Theodore II. the son and successor of John. But he was made pri­soner, and was only delivered in 1260 by the me­diation of Michael Palaeologus. Previously to this he had been appointed great logotheta, either by John or by Theodore, whom he had instructed in logic. Meanwhile, Michael Palaeologus was proclaimed emperor of Nicaea in 1260, and in 1261 he expulsed the Latins from Constantinople, and became emperor of the whole East; and from this moment Georgius Acropolita becomes known in the history of the eastern empire as one of the greatest diplomatists. After having discharged the function of ambassador at the court of Constantine, king of the Bulgarians, he retired for some years from public affairs, and made the instruction of youth his sole occupation. But he was soon em­ployed in a very important negociation. Michael, afraid of a new Latin invasion, proposed to pope Clernens IV. to reunite the Greek and the Latin Churches ; and negociations ensued which were car­ried on during the reign of five popes, Clemens IV. Gregory X. John XXI. Nicolaus III. and Martin IV. and the happy result of which was almost en­tirely owing to the skill of Acropolita. As early as 1273 Acropolita was sent to pope Gregory X. and in 1274, at the Council of Lyons, he confirmed by an oath in the emperor's name that that confession of faith which had been previously sent to Con­stantinople by the pope had been adopted by the Greeks. The reunion of the two churches was afterwards broken off, but not through the fault of Acropolita. In 1282 Acropolita was once more sent to Bulgaria, and shortly after his return he died, in the month of December of the same year, in his 62nd year.

Acropolita is the author of several works : the most important of which is a history of the Byzan­tine empire, under the title xpovlkov cos kv ffwo^m t£v ev ufrre'pois, that is, from the taking of Con­stantinople by the Latins in 1204, down to the year 1261, when Michael Palaeologus delivered the city from the foreign yoke. The MS. of this work was found in the library of Georgius Cantacuzenus at Constantinople, and afterwards brought to Eu­rope. (Fabricius, Bibl. Graec.^ol. vii. p. 768.) The first edition of this work, with a Latin translation and notes, was published by Theodorus Douza, Lugd. Batav. 1614, 8vo.; but a more critical one by Leo Allatius, who used a Vatican MS. and divided the text into chapters. It has the title Tecapyiov tov 'A/cpoTroAiTOv tow (jl^ol\qv XoyoOsTOv xpovtitr} (Tvyypafpt]., Georgii Acropolitae, magni Logotheta^ Historia, &c. Paris, 1651. fol. This edition is re­printed in the " Corpus Byzantinorum Scriptorum," Venice, 1729, vol. xii. This chronicle contains one of the most remarkable periods of Byzantine history, but it is so short that it seems to be cnly an abridgment of another work of the same author, which is lost. Acropolita perhaps composed it with the view of giving it as a compendium to those young men whose scientific education he superintended, after his return from his first embassy to Bulgaria,

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