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On this page: Achilleus – Achillides – Achiroe – Achlys – Achmet – Acholius – Acholoe – Acichorius – Acidalia – Acidinus

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ACHMET.

masius, Leyden, 1640,8vo. The best and most re- ' cent edition is by Fr. Jacobs, Leipzig, 1821, in 2 vols. 8vo. The first volume contains the prole­gomena, the text and the Latin translation by Crucejus, and the second the commentary. There is an English translation of the work, by A. H. (Anthony Hodges), Oxford, 1638, 8vo.

Suidas ascribes to this same Achilles Tatius, a work on the sphere (irepl fftyaipas), a fragment of \vhich professing to be an introduction to the Phaenomena of Aratus (Eicraywyr) els ra 'Apdrov <paiv6}JL£va) is still extant. But as this work is referred to by Firmicus (Matkes. iv. 10), who lived earlier than the time we have assigned to Achilles, the author of the work on the Sphere must have lived before the time of the writer of the romance. The work itself is of no particular value. It is printed in Petavius, Uranologia, Paris, 1630, and Amsterdam, 1703, fol, Suidas also mentions a work of Achilles Tatius on Ety­mology, and another entitled Miscellaneous His­tories ; as both are lost, it is impossible to deter­mine which Achilles was their author. [L. S.]

ACHILLEUS assumed the title of emperor under Diocletian and reigned over Egypt for some time. He was at length taken by Diocletian after a siege of eight months in Alexandria, and put to death, A. d. 296. (Eutrop. ix. 14, 15 ; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. 39.)

ACHILLIDES, a patronymic, formed from Achilles, and given to his son Pyrrhus. (Ov. HeroicL viii. 3.) [L. S.]

ACHIROE (*Ax*p<fy), or according to Apollo- dorus (ii. 1. § 4) Anchinoe, which is perhaps a mis­ take for Anchiroe, was a daughter of Nil us, and the wife of Belus, by whom she became the mother of Aegyptus and Danaus. According to the scho­ liast on Lycophron (583 and 1161), Ares begot by her a son, Sithon, and according to Hegesippus (ap. Stepli. Byz. s. v. ITaAA?^), also two daugh­ ters, Pallenaea and Rhoetea, from whom two towns derived their names. [L. S.]

ACHLYS ('AxAus), according to some ancient cosmogonies, the eternal night, and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. According to Hesiod, she was the personification of misery and sadness, and as such she was repre­ sented on the shield of Heracles {Scut. Here. 264, &c.): pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chatter­ ing teeth, swollen knees, long nails on her fingers, bloody cheeks, and her shoulders thickly covered with dust. [L. S.]

ACHMET, son of Seirim ('ax/^t vi&s :§etp6i», the author of a work on the Interpretation of Dreams, 'Ovetpo/cpm/ca, is probably the same per­son as Abu Bekr Mohammed Ben Sirin, whose work on the same subject is still extant in Arabic in the Royal Library at Paris, (Gatal. Cod. Ma-nuscr, Bibliotli, Keg. Paris, vol. i. p. 230, cod. mccx.,) and who was born a. h. 33, (a. d. 653-4,) and died a. H. 110. (a. d. 728-9.) (See Nicoll and Pusey, CataL Cod. Manuscr. Arab. Bibliofli* Bodl. p. 516.) This conjecture will seem the more pro­bable when it is recollected that the two names jdhmed or Aclimet and Mohammed, however unlike each other they may appear in English, consist in Arabic of four letters each, and differ only in the first. There must, however, be some difference between Achmet's work, in the form in which we have it, and that of Ibn Sirin, as the writer of the former (or the translator) appears from internal evi-

ACIDINUS. dence to have been certainlv a Christian, (e. 2,

«/ \

150, &c.) It exists only in Greek, or rather (if the above conjecture as to its author be correct) it has only been published in that language. It consists of three hundred and four chapters, and professes to be derived from what has been written on the same subject by the Indians, Persians, and Egyptians. It was translated out of Greek into Latin about the year 1160, by Leo Tuscus, of which work two specimens are to be found in Gasp. Barthii Adversaria, (xxxi. 14, ed. Francof. 1624, foil.) It was first published at Frankfort, 1577, 8vo., in a Latin translation, made by Leun- clavius, from a very imperfect Greek manuscript, with the title " Apomasaris Apotelesmata, sive de Significatis et Eventis Insomniorum, ex Indo- rum, Persarum, Aegyptiorumque Disciplina." The word Apomasares is a corruption of the name of the famous Albumasar, or Abu Ma'shar, and Leun- clavius afterwards acknowledged his mistake in attributing the work to him. It was published in Greek and Latin by Rigaltius, and appended to his edition of the Oneirocritica of Artemidorus, Lutet. Paris. 1603, 4to., and some Greek various readings are inserted by Jac. De Rhoer in his Otium Daventriense, p. 338, &c. Daventr. 1762, 8vo. It has also been translated into Italian, French, and German. [W. A. G.]

ACHOLIUS held the office of Magister Ad-missionum in the reign of Valerian. (b. c. 253— 260.) One of his works was entitled Acta, and contained an account of the history of Aurelian. It was in nine books at least. (Vopisc. Aurel. 12.) He also wrote the life of Alexander Severus. (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 14. 48. 68.)

ACHOLOE. [harpyiae.]

ACICHORIUS ('a/«x«/mo*) was one of the leaders of the Gauls, who invaded Thrace and Macedonia in b. c. 280. He and Brennus com­manded the division that marched into Paeonia. In the following year, b. c. 279, he accompanied Brennus in his invasion of Greece. (Paus. x. 19. § 4, 5, 22. § 5, 23. § 1, &c.) Some writers suppose that Brennus and Acichorius are the same persons, the former being only a title and the latter the real name. (Schmidt, " De fontibus veterum auc-torum in enarrandis expeditionibu's a Gallis in Macedonian! susceptis," Berol. 1834.)

ACIDALIA, a surname of Venus (Virg. A&n. i. 720), which according to Servius was derived from the well Acidalius near Orchomenos, in which. Venus used to bathe with the Graces; others con­ nect the name with the Greek d'/a5es, i. e. cares or troubles. [L. S.J

ACIDINUS, a family-name of the Manlia gens. Cicero speaks of the Acidini as among the first men of a former age. (De leg. agr. ii. 24.)

1. L. manlius acidinus, praetor urbanus in b. c. 210, was sent by the senate into Sicily to bring back the consul Valerius to Rome to hold the elections. (Liv. xxvi. 23, xxvii. 4.) Ins.c. 207 he was with the troops stationed at Narnia to oppose Hasdrubal, and was the first to send to Rome intelligence of the defeat of the latter. (Liv. xxvii. 50.) In b. c. 206 he and L. Cornelius Lentiilus had the province of Spain entrusted to them with proconsular power. In the following year he conquered the Ausetani and Ilergetes, who had rebelled against the Romans in conse­quence of the absence of Scipio. He did not re­turn to Rome till b. c. 199, but was prevented by

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