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voured above all things to make his sub­jects attractive by investing them with the charm of novelty and grace. He also has the merit of having further improved the distribution of light and shade, intro­duced by his elder comtemporaries. Spe­cially celebrated was his picture of Helen, painted for the temple of Hera on the Laci-nian promontory [Cicero, De Invent, ii 1 § 1]. He aimed at the highest degree of illusion. As is well known, he is said to have painted grapes so naturally that the birds flew to peck at them [Pliny, N. H. xxxv 61-66]. (Cp. parrhasius.)

Zonaras (loannes). A Greek historian, who lived at Constantinople as chief of the imperial bodyguard and first private secre­tary to the emperor under Alexius I, Com-nenus. He next became a monk, and com­posed a history of the world down to 1118 A.D., divided into eighteen books. Its value consists in its exact quotations from lost works of earlier writers, especially from

those of Dio Cassius, referring to the Empire. The history of his own time he recorded as an eye-witness.

Zoalmas. A Greek historian who lived as a high officer of State at Constantinople in the second half of the 5th century A.D., and composed a work, distinguished for its intelligent and liberal views, on the fall of I the Roman Empire. It is in six books : i, giving a sketch of the time from Augustus to Diocletian ; ii-iv, a fuller account of events down to the division of the Empire by ThSSd5siu9 the Great; v and vi treat in greater detail of the period from 395-410; the conclusion of book vi is probably want­ing, aa Zosimus had the intention of con­tinuing the history up to his own time. He attributes the fall of the Empire in part to the overthrow of heathenism and the introduction of Christianity, with which, of course, he was not acquainted in its purest form, but only in the degenerate state into which it had sunk in the 4th century.


the introduction of the lot in the appointment of administrative offices has in modern times been generally ascribed to Cleisthenes. Thus E. Curtius in his History of Greece (i, p. 478, Ward) observes : u To the opinion that at all events it belongs to his period and is connected with his reforms I firmly adhere, though many voices have been raised in favour of the view of Grote, according to which the election of public officers by lot was not introduced until the time of Pericles." But it has been shown by Fustel de Coulanges (La Cite" Antique, p. 213) that the lot, being a religious institution, must be of great antiquity. According to Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (c. 8), it was enacted by Solon that the nine archons should be appointed by lot out of 40 candidates selected by the tribes. From this and other passages in the same treatise it has been inferred that election to the office of archon went through the following stages: "(1) Prior to Draco, the archons were nominated by the Areopagus ; (2) under the Draconian constitu­tion [about 621 b.c.] they were elected by the ecclesia; (3) under the Solonian constitution [about 594 b.c.], so far as it was not disturbed by internal troubles and revolutions, they were chosen by lot from 40 candidates selected by the four tribes ; (4) under the consti­tution of Cleisthenes [508 b.c.] they were directly elected by the people in the ecclesia; (5) after 487 b.c. they were appointed by lot from 100 [or, less probably, 500] candidates selected by the ten tribes; (6) at some later period (c. 8) the process of the lot was adopted also in the preliminary selection by the tribes." (See also Mr. J. W. Headlam's Election by Lot at Athens, 1891, especially pp. 79, 88, 183.) It was in 457 B.C. (ib, 26) that the zeugltce first became eligible for the office. The duties of the archons are enumerated in Aristotle's Constitution of Athens, chaps. 56-61.

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