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On this page: Xiphos – Xuthus – Xyele – Zagreus – Zeno – Zenobius – Zenodotus

702

XIPHOS——ZENODOTUS.

household, especially on husbandry. (9) Hieron, a dialogue between the poet Simo-nides and Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, on the burden of responsibility that weighs on the possessor of royal power, and on the happiness caused by wisely administering it. (10; De Republics, Lacldcemonwrum (On the Spartan Constitution), a glorifi­cation of Sparta written soon after the battle of Coronea (394). (11) De Vectl-galibus (On the Revenues), composed after the conclusion of the Social War, and there­fore, if genuine, in the last years of Xeno-phon's life, containing suggestions to the Athenians for the improvement of their revenue, without oppressing the allies. (12) Hipparchzcus (Directions for an Athenian Commander of Cavalry in War and Peace), apparently written shortly before the battle of Mantinea in 362. (13) De Re Equestri (On the Management of the Horse), written for his youthful friends, wTith a consider­able degree of completeness, and much practical knowledge of the subject. (14) The Cynegetlcus (On the Chase); judging by its lively, spirited tone, one of his earliest works. A number of letters are ascribed to him, which are undoubtedly spurious. The same must be said of the De Republica Atheniensium (On the Athenian Constitution), which was apparently com­posed before b.c. 424 by an Athenian of oligarchical views.

His style, like the man himself, is plain and simple, at times even insipid; it was exceedingly admired by the ancients on account of its natural charm. His Greek

is certainly not the purest Attic; but, apparently on account of his long sojourn abroad, is frequently mixed with poetical and dialectical words and forms. The Cyropcedia, the (Economicus, and the Symposium are the most carefully elabo­rated of his writings. His practical and unimaginative nature shows itself also in the style of his historical and philosophical books. In the latter he appears throughout as a moralist, with no talent for speculation. The former are entirely destitute of any grand leading idea, or any insight into the underlying connexion of events. They deal for the most part with what has a practical interest only. His preference for the Spartan character, which entirely controls his representation of the contem­porary history of Greece in the Hellenica, is also characteristic of the man.

(2) A Greek romance-icriter of Ephesus, who composed towards the end of the 2nd century a.d. his Ephesian Stories, in five books, which in a light and simple style describe the adventures of a young couple named Atheia and Abr5c6mes. It has frequently served as a model for later romance-writers, especially for Charlton, and apparently also for Heli6dorus.

XIphos. The straight, two-edged sword of the Greeks. (See sword.)

Xuthue. Brother of vESlus (q.v., 1), and husband of Creusa, the daughter of Erech-theus; adoptive father of Ion (q.v.}.

Xyele. The short, slightly curved, one-edged sword of the Spartans. (See sword.)

Zagrens. A name of Dionysus (q.v.).

Zeno (Oh-. Zenon). (1) Of Ella; born about 485 b.c., a disciple of the philoso­pher Parmenides, whose doctrine he sought to prove by indirect arguments, (Cp. philosophy). Of his writings only iso­lated fragments are preserved.

(2) Of Cittium in Cyprus. He came in 390 b.c. as a merchant to Athens, and there, through the study of the writings of the Socratic philosophers, was led to devote himself to philosophy. At first he attached himself to the Cynic philosopher Crates, whose doctrine was, however, too unscientific to give him permanent satisfac­tion ; he then studied under the Megarian Stilpo, and the Academics XenScrates and Polemon, and founded about 310 a school of

philosophy of his own, which received the name of Stoic from the Stda Pfecile, where he held his discourses. After fifty-eight years devoted to the teaching of philosophy, he died at an advanced age, held in the highest honour by the Athenians. Of his numerous writings we possess only a few meagre fragments. His doctrine received its complete development from his fol­lowers Cleanthes and Chrysippus. (See philosophy.)

ZenSblus. A Greek Sophist of Antioch, who lived at Rome as teacher of rhetoric in the first half of the 2nd century B.C., and availing himself of the works of earlier writers, made a collection of proverbs, still extant in an abridged form.

Zenoddtus. The first considerable philo-

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