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01)8

WINE.

(East), and Notus (South), they are, accord­ing to one account [Od. x 1-75], committed by Zeus to the charge of jEolus (g.v., 2). But elsewhere they appear as indepen­dent personalities, who, dwelling in Thrace [H. ix 5, of Boreas and Zephyrus], display their activity at the command of Zeus and other gods, and are invoked by men with prayers and sacrifices [II. xxiii 195). Hesiod [Theog. 378] calls these winds chil­dren of Astrseus and Eos, and distinguishes them as beneficent beings from the de­structive winds, the children of Typhoeua [Theog. 869] Some particular myths speak only of Boreas and Zephyrus (q.v.), from whom, on account of their swiftness, famous horses were supposed to be descended. Thus [in II. xvi 150] the horses of Achilles are called the children of Zephyrus and Podarge, one of the Harpies (see harpyije.). The latter, in accordance with their original nature, are also deities of the wind, or rather of the storm. In historical times the cult of the winds in general, or that of Boreas or Zephyrus in particular, flourished at special places in Greece. In Italy also they were held in much venera­tion, particularly the fructifying wind Favonius, which corresponded to Zephyrus. In Rome the tempests (tempestdtes) had a sanctuary of their own with regular sacri­fices at the Porta Capina, which was founded in 259 B.C., in consequence of a vow made for the preservation of a Roman fleet in a storm at sea. Roman generals when embarking usually offered prayers to the winds and storms, as well as to the other gods, and cast offerings and bloody sacrifices into the waves to propitiate them. To the beneficent winds white animals were offered, and those of a dark colour to the malignant equinoctial and winter storms. The victims were generally rams and lambs.

In works of art the winds are usually represented with winged head and shoulders, open mouth, and inflated cheeks. The most noteworthy monument, from an artistic point of view, is the Tower of the Winds (q.v.) still standing in excellent preservation at Athens, on which eight winds are re­presented (Boreas, N.; Kaikias, N.E.; Apeliotes, E.; Eunts, S.E.; Notus, S.; Lips, S.W.; Zephyrus, W.; ArgCstfs or SclrOn, N.W.).

Wine. From the very earliest times wine was the daily beverage of the Greeks, and was made in every Greek country. The best was produced on the coasts and islands of the jEgean, such as Thasos,

Rhodes, Cyprus, and, above all, ChKs and Lesbos.

The cultivation of the vine was common in Lower Italy before its colonization by the Greeks, and the Romans had vineyards in very early times. Wine was however long regarded as an article of luxury, and was limited in its use. The regular pro­duction of wine (the method of which was imported from Greece, together with the finer varieties of vines) first came in with the decline of the cultivation of cereals. The home-grown wines were of little es­teem, as compared with the Greek, and especially the highly prized island wines, until the 1st century b.c. After this date the careful treatment of a number of Italian, and more particularly of Campanian brands (such as the Falernian, Caacuban, and Massic), procured for them the repu­tation of being the first wines of the world. They formed an important article of ex­port, not merely to the collective provinces of the Roman empire, Greece herself not excepted, but also beyond the Roman frontier. It was to the advantage of Italy that, in the western provinces, down to the 3rd century A.D., the cultivation of the vine was subject to certain limitations. No new vineyards could be added to those already existing, and the Italian vines could not be introduced, although Gaul produced many varieties of wine. Under the Empire wine was the main article of produce and of trade in Italy, Greece, and Asia, and the wine merchants of Rome, who had, from tha commencement of the 2nd century, formed two corporations, one for the eastern and another for the western trade, held an important position. In the 1st century there were already eighty famous brands in the Roman trade. Of this number Italy supplied two-thirds.

The vine was grown partly on poles or espaliers, partly on trees, especially on elms, which, if the ground between were still used for agriculture, were planted at a distance of 40, sometimes of 20, feet apart. The grapes intended for manufacture into wine were trodden with naked feet and then brought under the press. The must was then immediately poured into large pitched earthenware jars (Gr. ptthos, Lat. dolium ; see vessels). These were placed under ground in a wine-cellar, facing the north to keep them cool, and kept uncovered for a year in order to ferment thoroughly. The inferior wines which were of no great age were drunk immediately from the jar [de dolio

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