Scanned text contains errors.
were unearthed mainly at Capua, Nola, and Vulci, no less than 3,000 of various kinds having been recovered, in 1829, at Vulci alone. More recently an increasing number
(17) * a child's coffin, with vases. (Stackelberg, Grafter der Hellene,!, Taf. vii.j
of fine vases has been found near Athens and Corinth, in the islands of the .<Egean, on the western shores of Asia Minor, and in the region of Gyrene.
The principal public collections are those in the British Museum, the Louvre, and the Paris Bibliotheque j also in the museums of Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Florence, Rome (especially the Museo Gregoriano), Naples, Athens, and St. Petersburg.
Literature. A popular summary of the subject is included in Collignon's Manuel ff Archeologie Grecque, pp. 253-312, which has been mainly followed in the above article, with additional details from Birch's Ancient Pottery, from Prof. Middleton's article on " Pottery " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, from Von Rohden's Vasen- kunde in Baumeister's Denkm&er, and other sources. Among further aids to the study of vase-paintings may be mentioned the illustrations edited by Millin and Mil- lingen (republished in part by Reinach, 1890), Inghirami, Gerhard, Lenormant and De Witte, and Benndorf, Duraont and Chaplain; the second editions of Klein's Euphronios, 1886, and Meistersignaturen, 1887, and the same writer's Lieblings- inschriften, 1890; Hartwig's Meister- schalen ; also Lau and Brunn, Die griech- , ischen Vasen, 1877, and the forty large plates of Genick and Furtwangler's Gr. Keramik, 1883 ; lastly, Rayet and Collignon's Histoire de la Cdramique Grecque, 1888, and De signs from Greek Vases in the British Museum, 1894. I
Vectigalla. The Roman term originally denoting only the revenues flowing into the
State chest from the State domains, and for the most part collected by contract. (See I publicaxi.) The domains consisted of [ cultivated grounds, the rent of which was paid in money or kind; of pastures and meadows, for the use of which a payment (scriptura) was made; of forests, from which revenue was derived mainly by the letting of pitch huts; of lakes and rivers let for fishing; and of mines and salt-works. With a view to protecting the citizens from exorbitant prices, the sale of salt had already been made a State monopoly in the earliest years of the Republic, and it remained such till late into the times of the Empire. In letting salt mines the price of the salt was fixed in the contract, as was also the case with many articles produced from mines. The term vectlgal also includes the rent paid for buildings, shops, booths and baths erected on public sites; the payment for the use of bridges and roads, of public water-ways, and sewers in cases where private properties drained into them; export and import tolls (see portorium), as well as all other indirect taxes. Such was the tax which was introduced into Rome in 357 b.c., and under the emperors was levied throughout the whole empire, the vtcesima llbertfitis or mdnumissldnVs / a tax of 5 per cent, paid on every manumitted slave, either by himself or his master. To these were added under Augustus the centeslma rgrum vSna/ium, a tax of 1 per cent, on all articles sold at auctions; the quinta et vicesima manclpiorum, a tax of 4 per cent, on every slave sold; and the vicesima here-ditatum et leg&t&rum, a tax of 5 per cent, on all inheritances over 100,000 sesterces £875), and on all legacies not falling to the next of kin. This impost, with the increase of celibacy and the custom of leaving complimentary legacies to the whole circle of one's friends, proved exceedingly productive, and, though originally limited to Roman citizens, was, with the franchise, extended by Caracalla to all the inhabitants of the Empire, and at the same time raised to 10 per cent.
VedlSvis. See veiovis.
V6g6tius. (L) Flavins Vlgltius Sinatus. A Roman writer on military affairs, who, under a commission from Theodoslus I, composed, between 384 and 395 a.d., _ a work in four books on military affairs (Epitome Rei Militarls) consisting of extracts from earlier writers on this subject (especially Cato, Celsus, and Frontlnus). He raises no claim to personal knowledge or to stylistic