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> . - nipTiora, known as the Poniatowski vase, found in a tomb at Bari in Apulia, and,now _.. .he Vatican Museum, representing the myth of Triptolemus (Lenonnant and De Wittp, -Mtte« Cframographiques, III, Ixiii). (6) A crater, found Rt Sant' Agata de' Goti, now in the Louvre, closely resembling the vase by Aateas, Naples, 3226 ; Cadmus slaying the dragon, (c) A candelabrum ampHora, with an open building and figures grouped in two,rowg. (d) A prorhouj with a female head. («) A carcnesium (Dubois Maisonneuve, Introd. d I'Etude des Vnaea Ant., pi. vii. ii, livii, xxxvii).
tion of the most perfect and ideal beauty " (Prof. Middleton in Encycl. Brit., xix, p. 613, with plate v; cp. Baumeister, fig. 938).
(a) An a
i the ~ •
In place of paintings we sometimes find figures in relief applied as a kind of frieze to the body of the vase. The most beautiful examples show a combination of relief, polychromy, and gilding. Such is the famous vase found at Cumse and now at St. Petersburg; the groundwork of which is covered with a brilliant black, and is vertically fluted. It has two friezes with figures in relief, the upper representing Triptolemus and the Eleusinian goddesses : the lower, lions, dogs, panthers, and griffins (Baumeister, fig. 520).
and Northern Italy, but abound in Sicily and in Southern Italy, especially at Ruvo, Armento, arid Sant' Agata di Goti. The beet among them range from after b.c. 404, perhaps from B.C. 300 to nearly 200. After this the style of the paintings became extremely coarse, and about 100 B.C. painted vases ceased to be made.
The technical processes followed in the manufacture of vases have in part been treated under pottery. Fig. 16 exhibits the design on a vase in which some of the details of ornamentation are represented in actual course of being carried out. In the centre stands Athene, the patron-goddess of all kinds of handicraft, with a crown in her
IV. Vases of the Decadence.
The red colour of the figures is now paler, the glaze often of a dull, leaden hue; the ornaments are numerous and large in proportion to the subjects (fig. 15 a, b, c). The figures are no longer few and detached, but grouped in masses on the large vases, and the composition is not statuesque, but essentially pictorial. White opaque colour is freely introduced for the flesh of the females and children, and even for that of the males ; as art declines, it almost supersedes red.
Such vases are rarely found in Greece
hand to reward the successful craftsman. On either side of her a winged Nike is placing a wreath on the head of one of those engaged in painting the decorations of the vases. The shapes represented are, beginning from the left, amphora, canthd-rus, prdchous (in cantharus), crater, amphora, and above the last, on the extreme right, a small cantharus and an cenOchde.
Uses. Nearly all the 20,000 vases already discovered were found in tombs. The earliest recorded discovery of such vases was on the occasion of the rebuilding of Corinth, b.c. 46, when the tombs of the city destroyed a