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On this page: Turma – Turnus – Turpilius – Tutela – Tutor – Tutulus

661

TURMA——TUTULUS.

worn by the Roman at home and at work, and also by slaves and strangers. Senators and patricians were distinguished by a tunica with a broad purple stripe (latus ciavus, hence tunica latlclav<ta) extending from the neck to the under seam; the knights by a narrow one (angustus ciavus, hence tunica angusticlavia). The purple tunica, adorned with golden palm-branches (tunica palmata), was, with the toga picta (see toga), the dress of a general on the occasion of a triumph (q.v.). It very early became the custom to wear beneath the tunic proper a tunica interior, which was of wool. Linen shirts did not come into use until the 4th century a.d. Women also wore a double tunic, an under one consist­ing of a garment fitting closely to the body and reaching over the knee, and over this the stdla (q.v,).

Tnrma. A sub-division of the Roman cavalry. The 300 knights originally be­longing to each legion were divided into 10 tunnce of 30 men: each of these had 3 dlcurlonfs, the first of whom commanded the whole turtna, and 3 optlonSs (adjutants). The divisions of allied cavalry called alw (see ala), each consisting of 300 men, con­tained 5 turmas of 60 men each. Under the Empire the independent divisions of cavalry of 500 or 1,000 men, which were also called ate, consisted of 16 or 24 turmas. The cavalry divisions of 120 horsemen in a cohort of 500 strong, which formed the unit in many cohorts, and of 240 horsemen in a cohort of 1,000 strong, were divided into 6 and 10 turmat respectively. (See cohoes.) Turnus. Son of Daunus and Venilia, brother of Juturna (q.v.), king of the Riitulians at Ardga. He was induced by Amata, the sister of his mother, and wife of Latmus, to make war upon ^Eneas for his bride Lavlnia, who had already been betrothed to himself. After many hard fights he was slain in single combat by his rival.

Turplllus (Sextus). A Roman writer of comedies, a younger contemporary of Terence. He died at Sinuessa in 103 b.c. We only possess some of the titles and a few fragments of his plays. He was the last im­portant writer of the fabiila palUata (q.v.). Tutela. The office of guardian among the romans. It affected not only minors, but also widows and grown up daughters up to the time of their marriage, with the exception of the Vestals. In the case of iinjitibgrls or pupilli, ordinary minors, the guardian (tutor) managed their property

until the time of their majority, which with girls began at twelve, with boys at fourteen. At this age the guardianship determined, and girls became, like widows, possessed of independent power over their property, but still remained so far under guardianship, that they were unable to take legal proceedings without the consent of their guardians.

Three kinds of tutores have been dis­tinguished: (1) tutor testamentarius, who was named in the will. By a provision in the will women were sometimes allowed the choice of their guardian, who was then called tutor optlvus (" chosen guardian "), to distinguish him from the tutor ddtlmis (or " specified guardian "). If no guardian was named in the will, or the guardian named declined the office, or subsequently resigned it, the next of kin stepped in as (2) tutor legltimus. In tne case of a widow, this was the son, if of age, or the husband's brother, and so on. In the case of a daugh­ter, the brother, if of age, the uncle on the father's side, and so on. Among the patri­cians, if there were no kinsmen, the gentiles undertook the duties. (3) If there were neither a tutor testamentarius nor a tutor legitimus, then the praetor appointed a tutor Atllianus, so called because the lex AtUla (about 188 b.c.) had introduced this kind of guardian. Under the Empire these guardians were named by the consuls, from the time of Marcus Aurelius by a regular praitor ttitelaris. Women having three children were exempted from all guardian­ship by Augustus. Then Claudius abo­lished guardianship on the part of the agnail in the case of all women. Diocle­tian extended this abolition to the case of minors. After the time of Diocletian, guardianship over women fell into disuse, and afterwards women were themselves allowed to act as guardians. A guardian found guilty of betraying his trust was punished by infamia (q.v.). (Cp. cura.)

Among the athenians the guardian (Ipitropos), if not named by the father in the will, was generally appointed by the archon from the nearest relations. The archon was also the proper authority in suits relating to guardianship, which, during the minority of the ward, could be brought forward in the form of a public prosecu­tion ; and, after the ward had attained his majority, in that of a private lawsuit. Tutor. A guardian. (See totela.) TutuluB. A kind of Roman head-dress, formed by plaiting the hair high above

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