The Ancient Library

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On this page: Tropaeum – Trophonius and Agamedes – Tros – Trua – Tryphiodorus – Tubilustrium – Tullius – Tunica



sequently sets out on its journey in two parts. Only Nestor, Diomede, Neoptolemus, Philoctetes, and IdSmeneus reach home in safety; while Menelaus and Odysseus have first to undergo wanderings for many a long year. Death overtakes the Loerian Ajax on the sea, and Agamemnon immediately after his arrival home.


(Bceotian coin.)

Trtpaeum (G-r. tropaiSn}. The Greek term for a monument of victory, composed of the arms captured as booty, and set up on the spot where the conquered enemy had turned to flight. Representations of the stump of a tree with cross-pieces and armour or weapons suspended from them, are often to be seen on coins (see cut). The Romans borrowed the custom from the Greeks, but generally erected as memorials of victory per­manent monuments, with representations of the war carved in relief, and with trophies of arms suspended over the undecorated portions.

Trfphonius and Agamedes. Sons of Erginus of OrchSme'nus, legendary heroes of architecture. Many important buildings were attributed to them, among others the temple of Apollo at Delphi [Homeric Hymn to Apollo, 118; Strabo, p. 421; Pausanias x 6 § 13], that of Pdsoidon at Mantlneia [Paus. viii 10 § 2], the tMlamos of Alcmene in Thebes [ib. ix 11 § 1], the treasuries of Augeas in Elis [Scholia to Aristophanes, Nubes 508], and Hyrieus in Boeotian Hyria [Paus. ix 37 § 4]. In the last named they inserted one stone so cleverly that it could be easily removed from the outside and the treasure stolen by night. But on one occa­sion, when Agamedes was caught in the trap laid by Hyrieus to discover the thief, Trophonius, to save himself from being betrayed as his brother's accomplice, cut off the head of Agamedes. Being pursued however by the 'ung, he was swallowed up in the earth at Lebadea, and by the com­mand of Apollo a cult and an oracle were dedicated to him as Zeus Trophonius.

The oracle was situated in a subterranean chamber, into which, after various prepara­tory rites, including the nocturnal sacrifice of a ram and the invocation of Agamedes, the inquirers descended, to receive, under cir­cumstance'? of a mysterious nature, a variety of revelations, which were afterwards taken down from their lips and duly interpreted. The descent into the cave, and the sights

which there met the eye, were so awe-inspiring, that the popular belief was that no one who visited the cave ever smiled again [Athenseus, G14A; cp. Aristophanes, Nubes 508]; and it was proverbially said of persons of grave and serious aspect, that they had been in the cave of Trophonius.

According to another story, the brothers, after the completion of the Delphic temple, asked Apollo for a reward, and he pro­mised they should have on the seventh day the best thing that could be given to man; and on that day they both died a peaceful death [Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i 114; Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium 14].

Tros. Son of Erichthonius, father of Ilus founder of Troy, and of Assaracus and Ganymedes. (Cp. dardands.)

Trtii (tndld). A kind of ladle. (See vessels.)

TrJ-phlddorns. A Greek epic writer of Egypt, who composed at the beginning of the 6th century b.c. a Conquest of Ilium in 691 hexameters, a very indifferent poem.

Tnba. The Latin name for a straight wind-instrument of deep, clangorous sound, which was used at sacrifices, games, and

funerals, and in war among the infantry to give the signal for attack and retreat, and was blown by the tubicin (see cut). (Cp. lituus, 2.)

TubUustrlnm. A festival in honour of Mars. (See salii.)

Tulllns. See cicero and tiro.

Tfmlci (Latin). A garment for men and women worn next the person. With men it was a loose shirt of woollen stuff, consist­ing of pieces sewn together at the sides, and having either no sleeves or only short ones reaching half way down the arm. Longer sleeves were considered effeminate, and first came into general use in the 3rd and 4th centuries ad. Ordinarily the tunica was girded up over the hip, and reached to the knees only. It was con­sidered unbecoming to allow it to appear beneath the lower part of the togti. It was

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