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TRIUMPHAL ARCHES.

him, held the golden crown of Jupiter, and, while the people shouted acclama­tions, called to him, "Look behind you, and remember you are mortal." [Tertullian, Apol. 33.] He also guarded himself against envy and the evil eye by an amulet which he wore either on his person or tied to the car. With him on the car, and some­times on the horses, sat his youngest chil­dren, while his grown up sons rode behind with his lieutenants and officers. The soldiers brought up the rear, all wearing decorations, and shouting lo triunnphet In accordance with ancient custom, they also alternately sang songs in praise of their general, and uttered ribald jests at his expense. On arriving at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, the general, as a token of his victory, placed on the lap of the god the bay leaves wreathed around the fasces, together with his own branch of bay, or (in later times) a palm-branch, the fasces, and his laurel-shoot. He then offered the sacrifice of thanksgiving (cp. fig. 2).

(2) SACRIFICE OF TBAJAN. (Bas-relief from Arch of Constantine.)

The festival, originally limited to one day, gradually extended itself to several. It concluded with a banquet to the State officials and the Senate, and sometimes also with an entertainment for the soldiers and people. If the permission to celebrate the ordinary triumph were refused to a general, he could undertake one on his own account to the temple of Jupiter Latiaris on the Alban Hill. If the conqueror had not fought under his own auspices, or if his exploits did not appear to merit the highest form of triumph, he was allowed to hold one of an inferior kind called an fivfitm.

In this the conqueror entered the town either on foot (as in earlier times) or on horseback, clad in the toga pr&texta, and with a wreath of myrtle on his brow. Under the Empire, only the emperors triumphed, because the generals commanded as their lieutenants (legati Augusti), under the auspices of the emperors, and not under their own. Victorious generals were thea obliged to content themselves with the ornamenta triumphalld f~ i.e. the right of appearing on holiday occasions in th» insignia of triumph, the tunica palmaia, or toga picta, and wreath of bay leaves. After Trajan's time, even this kind of military distinction ceased, as all consuls were permitted to wear the triumphal deco­rations during festal processions.

Triumphal Arches. A type of monu­mental architecture peculiar to the Romans. They were erected as memorials in honour of victorious generals, and (in later times) in honour of individual emperors. In architectural design they united the Roman arch with the Greek column. In Rome (not to mention the remains of the Arch of Drusus) there are still extant, (1) the arch which the Senate and people erected after the death of titus, in memory of the con­quest of Judsea (70 a.d.). This consists of two massive piers of Pentelic marble in­closed by pilasters and joined together by a vaulted arch, and of a lofty entablature, on which the dedication is inscribed. On the inner jambs of the arch are two fine relief's, representing (i) the emperor on the triumphal car, and (ii)a group of soldiers bearing the spoils of the Jewish War. (See triumph, fig 1.) (2) The Arch of SEPTlMlus severds, with three entrances. This is of remarkable dimensions, but the decoration, though far richer, is overcharged; it was erected by the people in 203 a.d. in honour of the emperor after his victories over the Parthians. (3) The Arch of constantine, also with three entrances. This was built after 311 A.D. (see cut), by using certain portions (viz. the reliefs on both the fronts and on the inner sides of the middle arch) of one of the triumphal arches of Trajan, which was destroyed for this purpose. Among those not in Rome must be men­tioned that at Orange in the south of France. Arches of honour were also erected for other services. Such are that of Augustus at Arlminum (Rimini} on the occasion of the completion of the road leading to that place from Rome; that of Trajan at Anc&nat on the restoration of the

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