The Ancient Library

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On this page: Trajan'S Column – Transvectio – Trapezitae – Trapezophoron – Treasury – Trebellius Pollio – Tresviri – Triarii – Tribon – Tribonianus – Tribulum – Tribunal



trlmlter; the other consisting of song and dance (see chorus) in the numerous varieties of Dorian lyric poetry. The dramatic por­tion was generally made up of the following parts : the prSloyos, from the beginning to the first entry of the chorus; the epcisoclion, the division between each choral song and the next; and the e&odos, or concluding portion which followed the last chorus. The first important choral part was called the pdrddos / and the song following an cpeisodion, a stilsimon. There were further songs of lamentation by the chorus and actors together, which were called kointnoi. A solo was sometimes sung by the actor alone ; this became especially common in the later tragedies.

(II) roman tragedy was founded entirely •on that of the Greeks. In early times there existed crude dramatic productions (see satire), which provided an opening for the translation from the Greek dramas brought on the stage by Livius AndrOnlcua. He was a Greek by birth, but was brought to Rome as a captive about 200 b.c. It is to him that Roman tragedy owes its origin. His dramas and those of his successors were more or less free versions of Greek originals. Even the tragedies, or historical plays, drawn from national Roman materials, called fabides pratextce or prcetextattr (see pr^etexta), the first writer of which was his immediate successor Ncevius (about 235 b.c.), were entirely modelled on the Greek. The most noteworthy representatives of tragedy under the Republic were Ennius (b.c. 239-170), Pacuvius (220-130), and Ar.cius (170-104), besides whom only a few other poets produced any works about this time. It is true that the scanty fragments we possess of these dramas admit of no positive judgment as to their merit, but there is no doubt that they rank far below the original creations of the Greeks. It may also be clearly inferred from the frag­ments, that declamation and pathos formed a characteristic attribute of Roman tragedy, which was intensified by a studied archaism of expression. Moreover, the titles of their plays that have come down to us show that preference was given to subjects re­lating to the Trojan epic cycle; this is to be explained by the Trojan origin claimed by the Romans. Next to this the most popular were the myths of the Pelopidse, of the Theban cycle, and of the Argonauts. Euri­pides was the favourite model; after him Sophocles: rarely ./Eschy Ins. Roman tragedy, like Greek, was made up of spoken dialogue

in iambic trimeters and musical portions called cantlca (q.v.). On the chorus in Roman tragedy see chorus (near the end). In the timeof Augustus the representatives of tragedy were Aslnius Polllo, Vartus, and Ovid; under Tiberius, Pomponius Secundus; under Nero and Vespasian, Curiatius Mater-nus, of whose works scarcely a line has been preserved. The only tragedies of Roman } antiquity which we possess are those of the philosopher Seneca, which show great mas­tery of form and a fertile imagination, but suffer from an intolerable excess of rhe­torical declamation. It is doubtful whether they were intended for the stage at all, and not rather for public recitation and for private reading.

Trajan's Column. See architecture, orders of.

Transvectlo. The festal parade of the Roman knights. (See equites.)

Trapezitse. See banks and banking. TrapezflphdrSn. See table. Treasury. See j£rarium. TrfibelHus Polllo. A Roman historian. (See scriptores historic augusts.)

Tresvlri or Triumviri. The Roman term for a college or board of three men. For the triumviri capUales, mdnetalSs, nocturni, see vigintisexviri. Trlarli. See legion. Trlbon. A garment worn in Doric states by men and gphebi, generally in a double fold over the chiton. It was considerably shorter than the hlmatidn (q.v.). At Athens also there was a tendency to imitate Spartan simplicity, especially amongst the philosophers, among whom this garment was worn chiefly by the Cynics.

Trlbonlanns. A celebrated Roman jurist of Side in Pamphylia, who was at first an advocate, and afterwards held a high official position under Justinian, and, in conjunction with the most distinguished lawyers of his time, made a code of Roman law. (See corpus iuris civilis.)

Tribulnm. The Roman threshing ma­chine. (See threshing.)

Tribunal. The Roman term for a plat­form of wood or stone (in the camp, gene­rally of turf), on which magisterial person­ages sat in their chair of office (see sella curulis) when discharging their public duties ; e.g. the consuls, when presiding at the cOmltla, and the praetors when sitting in judgment. In Roman theatres this name was given to the two places of honour immediately to the right and left of the tage, the one for the person who gave the

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