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TOREUTIC AET.

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go out, required great skill [Pausanias, i 30 § 2]. In the time of Socrates the torch-bearers sometimes rode on horseback [Plato, above quoted]. The contest was attended with considerable cost, as the scene of the race had to be illuminated ; and at Athens the duty of providing for it was one of the public services incumbent on the wealthier citizens. (See leitoukgia.) [The torch-race is sometimes represented on vases, e.g. in Gerhard's Ant. Bildw.Tal. 63,1, copied in Baumeister's Denkmtiler, fig. 563. A rider carrying a torch may be seen in the accom­panying cut.]

[Toreutic Art (Gr. toreutlke, sc. techne). The art of embossing metal, or working it in ornamental relief or intaglio (Pliny, N. H. xxxiv 54, 56 ; xxxv 77). The Greek verb tdreitetn means u to work in relief or repoussi?," and also " to chase " in metal; tdreutds is an epithet of cups that are " chased " or " worked in relief "; tdreia, is used of a " carving in relief "; the artist is called a tdreutes j and his characteristic tool the toreus (Lat. ccelum). The corre­sponding Latin term is ccelatura, which, as defined by Quintilian (ii 21 § 9), auro, argento, cure, fcrro Opera efflcit; while scalptura itiain lignum, ebur, marmor, vitrum, gemmas complectUur. While sculpture in bronze is primarily concerned with designing the work of art which has to be cast in the mould, the toreutic art has to do with the elaboration and finish of the metallic form when it is already cast. In the case of large works in bronze, the task of the toreutes is simply to remove slight flaws and to add a few finishing touches ; in that of smaller worka, his art becomes of paramount importance. The term toreutes is virtually confined to artists who produce for ordinary use articles in metal, which owe their value as works of art solely to the adornment bestowed upon them.

In the best times of Greek art, the favourite metal for this purpose was silver; but gold and bronze and even iron were also used. The art was often applied to the •embellishment of armour, especially shields; and even chariots were sometimes orna­mented with embossed silver (Pliny, xxxiii 140, carrucce argento ccel&tm). Articles of plate, especially large silver platters, were occasionally adorned with ferns or ivy-leaves (lances filicafce, p&terce liedera-cfac); and goblets were decorated with mythological subjects in relief (andglypta), such as figures in gold riveted on vessels

of silver, or in silver on bronze. These figures were either in high or low relief (emblematd, or cmstce). The art was also put into requisition for ornamenting furni­ture, for embossing plates of gold, and for making wreaths of that metal.

In the Homeric age, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead were in use in different degrees. Copper, especially when mixed with tin to form bronze, was the ordinary material for armour and for all kinds of utensils; gold is named in connexion with articles of furniture, armour, and jewellery, but is generally described as imported from abroad ; silver is less frequently mentioned. Iron was rare, in comparison with copper ; but was used for implements of agriculture as well as for armour and tools. A block of iron is given as a prize at the funeral games in honour of Patroclus (11. xxiii 826). Copper being the commonest metal, a worker in any kind of metaHs called in Homer a coppersmith (chalkeus); thus, in Od. iii 425, it is applied to one who in the same context is described as a goldsmith (chrys&chdos, ib. 432). The hammer and anvil sufficed for the manufacture of armour and the simpler varieties of household utensils. The process of beating out the metal and fashioning it with the hammer was called elaunein (II. vii 223, xii 295); and a derivative of this verb, sphyreldtos, " wrought with the hammer," was after­wards used as an epithet of statues made of plates beaten out with the hammer, as opposed to those of cast metal (Herodotus, vii 69). It was in fact applied to all kinds of products of hammering, and to work in repousse', large or small. The same process was used in making plates of metal to cover tripods and candelabra, as well as shields, scabbards, chariots, and also images of the gods. In such cases the plate of beaten metal was applied to a core of wood by what was termed empaistlke techne (Athenaeus, 488 b). The chair of Penelope is thus covered with ivory and silver (Od. xix 56), and the bed of Odysseus, with ivory, silver, and gold (xxiii 200). The cuirass of Agamemnon (II. xi 24 ff.) has twenty-one alternate stripes of various kinds of inlaid metal, both before and behind, the metals mentioned being gold and tin and kyanBs, which is now iden­tified as an imitation of lapis lazuli stained blue with carbonate of copper. The golden belt of Heracles is adorned with figures of bears, boars, and lions, and battle-scenes, in relief (Od. xi 609). The brooch of Odys-

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