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siderably less width. It was worn on such occasions in a peculiar mode called the cinctus Gabmus (or girding in the Gabian manner, after the town Gabii). In this, the end which, in the other mode, was thrown over the left shoulder, was drawn tightly round the body, so that in itself it formed a girdle, leaving both arms free and
ROMAN CLAD IN THE TOGA.
preventing the garment from falling off. This garb was subsequently retained only for certain ceremonial rites, as at the founding of towns, at the ambarvalia, during incantations, at the opening of the temple of Janus, and at sacrificial observances of diverse kinds. After the siigum had been introduced as a military garment, the toga served as the exclusive garb and symbol of peace. Women also in olden times used to wear the toga: afterwards this was only the case with prostitutes ; and disgraced wives were forbidden to wear the stola, the matron's dress of honour. The colour of the toga, as worn by men (toga vlrltts), was •white: a dark-coloured toga (brown or
black, toga pulla or sordida) was only worn by the lower classes, or in time of mourning, or by accused persons. A purple stripe woven in the garment was the distinctive mark of the curule magistrates and censors, of the State priests (but only when performing their functions), and afterwards of the emperors. This, which was called the toga prcetexta, was also worn by boys until they attained manhood, and by girls until marriage. The toga picta was a robe adorned with golden stars; it was worn by a general on his triumph, by the magistrate who was giving public games, in imperial times by consuls on entering office, and by the emperor on festal occasions. On the toga Candida, see candidatus. The foot-gear appropriate to the toga was the calceus (q.v.).
Togata. [The general term for a play with an Italian plot and surroundings, in cluding prci'textcUw (tragedies) and taber- narice (comedies). See Diomedes, p. 489, Keil, who makes it clear that the term togata is not confined to comedy, and that Horace, De Arte Poetica 288, is wrong in distinguishing togata from prwtexta, as comedy from tragedy.] (See comedy, 2, and pr.ktexta.) (H. N.]
Toilet. See hair, modes of dressing ; and clothing.
Tolleno. A Roman siege-engine. (Set sieges.)
Torch-race (Gr. LampadedrSmla). The torch-race was a contest held at night, especially at Athens, at the Panathensea and the festivals of Hephaestus, Prometheus, Pan, and the Thracian moon-goddess called Bendis [Plato, Sep. 328 a], In this contest young men ran, with torches in their hands, from the altar of Prometheus in the Academia (where the torches were lighted) to the city; and whoever reached the goal with his torch alight was the winner. Other
* RIDER CARRYING A TORCH. .
(Silver coin of Tarentum ; Luynes, Choix de MiM. Gr., pi. 3, 1.)
young men without torches ran after the torch-bearers; and the latter, if overtaken, had to hand over their torches to the former. To do this without letting the torches