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On this page: Tisiphone – Titan – Titans – Tities – Titinius – Tityrus – Toga

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TISIPHONE——TOGA.

pulsory military service, and the entrance on a military career or official activity in general. Under the Republic this time was fixed at a year. It was looked upon as the last stage of education, and in this a youth qualified himself either in the army for service in war or in the Forum for a political life.

In the latter instance the young man was handed over to the care of a man of proved experience in public affairs, whom he attended in the Forum and in the law-courts. In the former case he followed in the train (cdhors) of a general, where, without performing the service of a com­mon soldier, he fitted himself for the posi­tion of an officer.

Tislphdne. One of the Greek Furies. (See erinyes.)

Titan. Another name of the sun-god. (See helios.)

Titans. The children of Uranus and Gsea, six sons and six daughters: OcSdnus and Tethys, HypgrWn and Theia (parents of HelISs, Selene, Eos), Cceus and Phoebe (parents of Leto and Asterla), CrOnus and Rhla (parents of the Olympian deities), Onus (father by_Eurybia of Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses), lapetus (father of Atlas, Menoatius, PrSmetheus, and Epimetheus, by the Ocean-nymph Clymene), ThEmls (mother of the Hours and Fates), and MnemSsync (mother of the Muses). Like the parents, the children and grandchildren bear the name of Titan. Incited to rebel­lion by their mother Gaea, they overthrew Uranus (q.v.) and established as sovereign their youngest brother Cronus. He was dethroned in turn by his son Zeus, where­upon the best of the Titans and the majority of their number declared for the new ruler, and under the new order retained their old positions, with the addition of new prerogatives. The rest, namely, the family of lapetus, carried on from Mount Othrys a long and fierce struggle with the Olympian gods, who fought from Mount Olympus. Finally, by help of their own kindred, the HScatoncheires and the Cy­clopes, whom by Hera's counsel Zeus had set free from their prison, they were con­quered and hurled down into Tartarus, where the Hecatoncheires were set to guard them. A later legend represents the Titans as reconciled with Zeus and released from Tartarus, and assigns them a place with Cronus in the Islands of the Blest.

Tithonns. Son of Laomgdon of Troy, brother of Priam, carried off by Eos on

account of his beauty. She obtained for him from Zeus the gift of immortality, but forgot at the same time to ask for eternal i youth. When he afterwards became com-| pletely wrinkled and bent by age, and was powerless to move without assistance, and merely chirped like a cicada, she shut him up in a solitary chamber. According to another version, Eos changed him into a cicada. His sons were Emathion and Memnon (q.v.}.

Titles, One of the three ancient patrician tribes at Rome. (See patricians.)

Titlnlus. A Roman comic poet, the earliest representative of thefabula togata. (See comedy.) He nourished about 150 B.C. Owing to his skill in portraying character, he was ranked next to Terence. Of his comedies we only possess fifteen, titles and three fragments of a popular character.

TItyns. Son of Gaea, a giant in Eubcea, who offered violence to Leto, and in con­sequence was killed by the arrows of her children Apollo and Artemis., He paid the penalty of this outrage in the lower world, where he lay stretched over nine acres of ground, while two vultures perpetually-gnawed at his liver (the liver being sup­posed to be the seat of the passions).

T6ga. The distinctive garb of the Roman citizen when appearing in public (see cut). Its use was forbidden to exiles and to foreigners; it was indispensable on all official occasions, even in imperial times, when more convenient garments had been adopted for ordinary use. It consisted of a white woollen cloth of semicircular cut, about five yards long by four wide, a certain portion of which was pressed by the fuller into long narrow plaits. This cloth was doubled lengthways, not down the centre, but so that one fold was deeper than the other. It was next thrown over the left shoulder in such a manner that the end in front reached to the ground, and the part behind was about twice a man's height in length. This end was then brought round under the right arm, and again thrown over the left shoulder so as to cover the whole of the right side from the arm-pit to the calf. The broad folds in which it hung over were thus gathered together on the left shoulder. The part which crossed the breast diagonally was known as the sinus, or bosom. It was deep enough to serve as a pocket for the reception of small articles.

In earlier times the Romans wore the toga even in warfare, although one of con-

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