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On this page: Timanthes – Timema – Timocracy – Timomachus – Timon – Timotheus – Tiresias – Tiro – Tirocinium

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TIMANTHES——TIROCINIUM.

his history. Late in life he returned to his home, and died there in 256 b.c. at the j nge of ninety-six. He composed a History of Sicily from the earliest times down to 264 b.c., in sixty-eight books, and a work On the Campaigns of Pyrrhus : only frag­ments of these compositions have come down to us. He himself experienced in nearly every quarter the same hostile criti­cism which his predecessor's works received at his own hands, especially from Polybius (xii 1-16,] who pronounces him wholly in­capacitated for writing history on account of his lack of critical acumen, his malignity, his partiality, and his tendency to super­stition. He was the first among Greek authors who regularly adopted the reckoning by Olympiads as the basis of all chrono­logical statements.

(3) A Sophist, probably born 3 a.d. He compiled a Platonic dictionary, a part of which is still extant.

Timanthes. A Greek painter, from the island of Cythnus, flourished about 400 b.c. ; celebrated by the ancients for his genius no less than for his art. The most admired of his works was his painting of the Sacrifice of Iphlgeina, in which the expression of the different degrees of sym­pathetic grief and mourning was brought out in a masterly manner. The face of Agamemnon was hidden in a mantle ; a striking way of representing the father's untold anguish. [Cicero, Orator 74 ; Pliny, H. N. xxxv 73 ; Quintilian, ii 13 § 12 ; Valerius Maximus, viii 11 § 6. The same device is adopted in the mural painting from Pompeii reproduced under iphigenia.]

Timema (Gr., " valuation," " assess­ment "). (1) The value at which an Athenian citizen's property was rated for taxation. Cp. Lat. census. (See solonian consti­tution and eisphora).

(2) In legal language, a fine. Cp. litis cnstlmatw. (See judicial procedure.)

pr G

Timocracy (Gr. tlmokrdtid, government according to property-tax or valuation of roperty). The name given among the

reeks to that form of government in which, while the citizens were equal in other respects, their share in the govern­ment was regulated by a certain gradation corresponding to the amount of their pro­perty. Thus those whose property entailed the greater expenditure in public services possessed proportionately greater privileges. The Solonian constitution (q. v.) was founded on this principle.

TlmScrfon. A Greek lyric poet, of laly-

sus in Rhodes, who flourished about 480 b.c. He was a renowned athlete, and a friend of Themistocles. Suspected of treasonable intrigues with the Persians, he was ban­ished from his home; and, not obtaining his recall by aid of Themistocles, he at­tacked him, as well as his rival Simomdes, the friend of Theraist5cles, with scurrilous lampoons in the form of ./Eolian and Dorian lyrics. He also composed scOKa. Of his writings only a few fragments have come down to us, which show him to be a man of ability and of vehement passion. [Plu­tarch, Themistocles, 21.]

Timdmachus. Of Byzantium. The last Greek artist of note ; he probably flourished in the 3rd century b.c. Amongst his most celebrated pictures were his Ajax aroused from his Madness and his (unfinished) Medga. The latter was represented in the act of deliberating whether she is to slay her children. For these paintings Caesar afterwards paid the sum of eighteen talents. Of his Medea we have several copies, as in two of the mural paintings of Hercu-laneum and Pompeii [Baumeister's Denk-mOler, No. 948 and 155. Pliny, N. H. xxxv §§ 26, 136, 145 ; vii 126],

Timon. A Greek philosopher and poet, of Phlms, who flourished about 250 b.c. He composed three books of Silloi ({.«.), in which, in the form of a parody of the epic | poetry of Homer, he wittily ridiculed the dogmatic philosophers from the Sceptic point of view. As the chief representa­tive of this style of writing he was styled simply the Sillographer. We only possess fragments of his works.

TimdthSns. A Greek dithyrambic poet. (See dithyrambos).

Tirtslas. See teiresias.

Tiro (Marcus Tulllus). The learned freed-man and friend of the orator Cicero. He wrote the life of his master, whom he long survived, edited his speeches and letters, and collected his witty sayings. Besides this he composed grammatical and encyclopaedical works. He is especially famous as the inventor of Roman short­hand writing, and his name is assigned to a large collection of stenographical symbols (notce Tironianai). He lived to the age of 100.

Tirocinium (" a recruit's term of ser­vice " ; from tiro, a " recruit-"). The Roman term for the interval between the as­sumption of the toga virlKs (in the 16th or 17th year) which marked the beginning of independence and of liability to com-

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