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in a circle. Sometimes it was beaten out •with sticks. The Romans sometimes used machines. One of these was the tribulum, a board or beam with a sharp edge of stone or iron underneath, loaded with weights on the top and drawn by oxen, which were driven by a man sitting on the handle. Another was the plostellum Pcenicum, borrowed from the Carthaginians. This consisted of several rollers or cylinders fitted with iron spikes.
the pupil of the rhetoricians Antiphon and Gorglas, and of the philosopher Anaxagoras. The earliest trustworthy notice we have of him belongs to the year 421 B.C., when we find him at the head of an Athenian fleet stationed at the island of Thasos at the time when the Spartan Brasidas was besieging Amphipolis in Thrace. He was summoned to the help of the besieged, but, on his arrival, found the place already in the hands of the enemy, and had to content
* BUST OF TIK CVLHDKS. (Holkham Hall, Norfolk.)
Thucydldes._ The celebrated Greek historian, son of Olorus, an Athenian, probably descended from the Thracian prince Olorus, whose daughter Hegesippe was the wife of Miltiades and mother of Cimon. He was born about 471 b.c., and is said to have been
himself with garrisoning the neighbouring town of Klon, and securing it against Brasidas. On account of his delay in coming, he was put on his trial for treason, and banished. For twenty years he remained away from Athens. Part of this time he spent in Thrace, where he owned valuable gold-mines opposite Thasos, and part in the Peloponnesus. He probably lived for some time in Sicily. In 404, when the exiles were recalled to Athens, he returned to his