The Ancient Library

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On this page: Terpander – Terpsichore – Tertullianus – Tessera – Testudo – Tethys Tetradrachmon – Tetralogia



stone was cursed, together with his draught-cattle, and any one might kill him with impunity and without being defiled by his blood. In later times the punishment of fines was instituted instead.

The festival of the Termlndlla was cele­brated in Rome and in the country on the 23rd of February. The neighbours on either side of any boundary gathered round the landmark, with their wives, children, and servants; and crowned it, each on his own side, with garlands, and offered cakes and bloodless sacrifices. In later times, however, a lamb, or sucking pig, was some­times slain, and the stone sprinkled with the blood. Lastly, the whole neighbourhood joined in a general feast. A lamb was also sacrificed in the grove of Terminus, which was six Roman miles from Rome, near the ancient border of the town of Laurentum. On the Capitol there was a stone dedicated to Terminus, which had originally stood in the open air, but when the temple of Jupiter was founded by the last king, Tar-quinius Superbus, it was inclosed within the building, as the augurs would not allow it to be removed.

Terpander (Gr. Terpandros). A Greek poet and musician, a native of Antissa in Lesbos He is the true founder of Greek classical music, and also of lyric poetry, both jEolian and Dorian. He was the first to clothe in artistic form the kind of choral song, called nOmos, used at the festivals of Apollo ; he also introduced other important innovations into music. He is sometimes erroneously described as having added three strings to the original lyre of four strings [Strabo, p. 618]; but it is more probable that the lyre of seven strings was already in existence in his own time [Aristotle, Probl., xix 32]. The principal scene of his labours was Sparta, whither he had been summoned by order of the Delphic oracle to ! quell a disturbance amongst the people. It was at Sparta that he reduced to order the music of the Dorians. It was here too that he won the prize at the musical com­petition at the Carneia. Between 672 and 648 B.C. he carried off the prize four times in succession at the Pythian games in Delphi. Only a few verses of his own poems are extant.

Terpslchfire. The Muse of dancing. (See muses.),mia(Q,uintiisSepttm'lusFlOrens). One of the most important of the Latin Fathers. He was born at Carthage of pagan parents about 160 A.D., and died

about 230. After receiving a careful education in rhetoric and jurisprudence (and probably practising as a lawyer), he embraced Christianity, and became a presbyter in his native town. After de­fending Christianity against paganism, he joined the ascetic and fanatic sect of the Montanists, and became their champion against the Church. His writings reflect with faithfulness his general ability; his rhetorical training and legal subtlety; his rugged, combative, and passionate character; and his lively and often impetuous imagina­tion. They are written in the colloquial language of his time, which had many points of close contact with that spoken by the lower classes. His literary activity, which extended over a considerable length of time, was at its height in the reigns of Severus and Caracalla. His Apologia, written about 198, holds the foremost place amongst his works. It is one of his earliest writings, and was addressed to the provincial gover­nors of the Roman empire, in defence of Christianity, during a time of bitter perse­cution.

Tessera (Latin). (1) A die (see dice). Also (2) a ticket of admission to the theatre (q.v., II).

Testudo (Lat.; Gr. chelone, " tortoise-shell "). The general designation for dif­ferent kinds of sheds for the protection of soldiers engaged in a siege. (See cut 2 under sieges.)

Tethjs, wife of Oceanus (q.v.).

Tetradrachmon. A Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachma: (see coinage).

Tfitralfigla. The Athenian term given to the group of four plays which the poets produced in rivalry with each other at the dramatic contests held at the feast of Dionysus. After the introduction of the satyric drama, this, or a drama of a com­paratively cheerful character (such as the Alcestis of Euripides), formed the fourth piece of three tragedies or of a trilogy. By a tetralogy is more particularly meant such a group of four dramas as had be­longed to the same cycle of myths, and had thus formed a connected whole. Of such a kind were the tetralogies of ^Eschylus. It is doubtful, however, whether he found this type of connected tetralogy already in use, or was the first to introduce it. Sophocles abolished the connexion between the several pieces, and Euripides followed his example. A complete tetralogy is not extant, although a trilogy exists in the Oresteia of J5schylus, consisting of

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