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On this page: Templum – Tensa – Tepidarium

618

TEMPLUM——TEPIDARIUM.

that they correspond in position to the exterior range of the dipteral temple.

According to the number of columns in front, which must always be an even num­ber, since the entrance was in the middle, it is usual to distinguish temples as tctra-, hexa-, octa-, deca-, or dodeca-stylOs (with 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 columns). The number of columns along each side was usually one more than twice the number along the front, but this was not the invariable rule. For the architrave and for the columns of the different orders, see pp. 57, 58. The frieze resting on the architrave, and (in the Doric order) the metopes in particular (q.v.), as well as the two pediments (Or. lijm-pana), were decorated with sculptures, and these sculptures, as well as the walls of the temple often had a more life-like and more varied appearance given to them by appro­priate colouring. The coping of the roof, as well as the angles of the pediment, were ornamented by acrdtfria, which consisted of statues, vases, or anthlnrfa (groups of flowers and leaves; cp. cut to j^ginetan sculptures).

In the plan of their temples the romans originally followed the Etruscans (cp. tem­plum, below). The ground-plan of the Etruscan temple was nearly a square, the ratio of the depth to frontage being 6: 5. Half of the space was taken up by the cella, and the rest by the columns. The architrave was of wood, and without any special frieze. The great temple with three ccllce on the Roman Capitol was built in the Etruscan style, the middle and largest cella being sacred to Jupiter, and the smaller ones on either side to Minerva and Juno. (Cp. jupiter.) Under Greek influence the different forms of the Greek temple began to be imitated at Rome, the most prevalent type being that described as prostylos, which lent itself most easily to the requirements of a templmn in the strict sense of the term. An important alteration in the Greek form of temple was brought about by the introduction of vaulted arches or groined ceilings, which were seldom used by the Greeks, and never on a large scale, but were brought to great perfection by the Romans. They took the form of a cylindrical vaulting in the case of a quadrangular cella, and a dome in the case of the round temples, which were frequent with the Romans. The two prin­cipal forms of the latter are (1) the mfino-pteros, which consisted of a single circle of columns standing on a platform mounted

by steps and supporting the columns which bore a dome on a circular architrave. (2) The pHriptSrOs, with the same arrange­ment of columns, but with a circular cella in the middle which was covered by a dome rising from the surrounding colon­nade. In a third variety, of which we have an example in the Panthefm (q.v.), the circular body of the building is not surrounded by columns externally, hut only provided on one side with an advanced portico.

Templnm. The Roman term for a space marked out by the augurs (see augures) ! according to a certain fixed procedure. Its ground-plan was a square or rectangle, having its four sides turned to the different points of the compass; its front however, according to strict Roman custom, faced towards the west, so that any one entering the temple had his face turned towards the j east. It was not until later that the front I was frequently made to face the east. The building erected on this space, and cor­responding to it in plan, did not become a fanum, or sanctuary of the gods, until it had been consecrated by the pontiffces. (See dedicatio.)

As, however, there were fana which were not templet, e.g. all circular buildings, so there were templa which were not fana. Of this sort were the places where public affairs were transacted, such as the rostra in the Forum, the places where the ctimitia met or the Senate assembled, and even the city of Rome itself. The sanctuaries of I the gods were designed as templa if they i were intended to serve for meetings of the Senate, and if the form of worship prescribed for such sanctuaries were ap-propriate to the definition of a temphim. } Tonnes (or Tenes), son of Cycnus (q.v., ! 2). He (with his sister Hemithea) was thrown by his father in a chest into the sea, in consequence of the slanderous accusations brought against him by his stepmother. He was borne, however, by the waves to the island of Tenedos (so named from him), where he became king. He was afterwards reconciled to his father, and fell, with him, by the hand of ; Achilles, when the father and son, as allies of the Trojans, were opposing the landing of the Greeks on the shores of Asia.

Tensa. The chariot used for processions, or for the gods at the Circensian games. (See chariots.)

Tgpidarium. A tepid bath-room. (See baths.)

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