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On this page: Temples (continued)

617

TEMPLES.

temple with the columns arranged as in (2) at the back as well as in the front.

of the cella, which was separated from the lateral portions by one or more rows of pillars on each side.

Generally each temple belonged to only one god; but sometimes a temple was re­garded as the dwelling-place of several deities, either those who were worshipped in groups, as the Muses, or those who were supposed to stand in close alliance or other relationship to each other, such as the twins Apollo and Artemis; and Apollo, as leader of the Muses, together with the Muses themselves. Frequently only one god had an image and altar in the chief celfa, while others were worshipped in ad­joining chapels. Lastly, there were double temples, with two cellce built in opposite directions. (See architecture, fig. 13.) Many temples had, besides the cella, a kind of " holy of holies" (ddyton or mfgdrdn) which was only entered by the priests, and only by them at certain times, and which was sometimes under the ground. Usually an open porch or vestibule (pro-nods}, with pillars in front, stood before the cella, and in it were exposed the dedi­catory offerings. There was often also an inner chamber behind the image (Spistho-ddmds) which served for various purposes, the valuables and money belonging to the temple being often kept there. It was sur­rounded by a wall, and the door was well secured by locks.

The various kinds of temples are usually distinguished according to the number and arrangement of the pillars. Thus: (1) A temple in antls (fig. 1) is one in which the pronaos (sometimes also the opisthodomos] was formed by the prolongation of the side walls of the temple (Lat. antes ; Gr. para-stddSs) and by two columns placed between the terminal pilasters of the antce.

(3) AMPHIPROSTl'LOS.

(4) Peripterds (fig. 4) describes a temple surrounded on all sides by a colonnade sup­porting the architrave. This is the type

(4) PERIPTEROS.

most frequently employed by the Greeks. (See parthenon, cuts 1 and 2.)

(5) PseudoperiptSros ("false peripteros") is an epithet of a temple in which the archi­trave appears to be carried by pilasters or by "engaged" columns in the walls of the cella. This form is seldom used by the Greeks, but often by the .Romans.

(6) Dipterds (fig. 5) describes a temple-surrounded by two ranges of columns.

• • • • 1 • '

• • • • 1 1 ,

, 1 • • • •

(2) PROSTYLO!

(1) TEMPLE IN ANTIS.

(2) ProstylSs, with the columns in front (fig. 2), is an epithet descriptive of a temple, the front of whose pronaos was formed in all its breadth by a row of columns quite separate from the walls, and with the columns at the extremities standing in front of the antce.

(3) AmphiprOstylOs (fig. 3) describes a

(5) DIPTEROS.

(7) PseudOdiptlrOs (" false cttptfrds," fig. 6). A temple surrounded with only a single

: R:::::::::;

*

(6) PSEUDODIPTEKOS.

range of columns, but at such a distanc&

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