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Vtrts lllustrtbus, which apparently included the Roman poets, orators, historians, grammarians, and rhetoricians down to the time of Domitian, we possess the lives of Terence and Horace, and a fragment of that of Lucan, besides extracts made by the grammarian Diomedes and by St. Jerome from the book De Pdetls. From the book De Historlcis, we have a fragment of the biography of the elder Pliny, and the greater part of the chapter-De Gramm&ttcii et Rhetdrllnts. In the beginning of the 3rd century, under the reign of Alexander Severus, his work on the Lives of the Ctssars was continued by Marius Maximus, who treated of the emperors from Nerva to Elagabalus.
Suffectus. A magistrate elected in place of one who vacated office before the end of the year for which he was elected. The substitute continued in office for the rest of the year. (Cp. consules.)
Suldas.' A Greek lexicographer who lived about 970 a.d., and compiled, from the lexicographical, grammatical, and explanatory works of his predecessors, a lexicon which contains explanations of words, and accounts, mainly biographical, of earlier writers. The work is put together hastily, and without skill or discrimination. It is also marred by numerous mistakes. Nevertheless it is very valuable, owing to the wealth of information on literary history contained in it, much of this not being found elsewhere.
Sulla. See annalists.
Sulplcla. Several Roman poetesses bear this name. For the first, see tibdllus. A second, who is mentioned by Martial about the time of Domitian, wrote amatory poems which are lost. A poem in seventy hexameters and entitled a Satire, being a complaint to the Muse for the expulsion of the philosophers from Rome by Domitian (89 and 93 a.d.), is written in her name ; but this puerile performance is of a later date, her name having been wrongly attached to it.
Sulpicius. (1) Servlus Sulpicius Rufus. A Roman jurist, born about 105 b.c., praetor in 65, and consul in 51. He supported Caesar in the civil war, and was appointed by him proconsul of Achaia in 46 ; he died in 43 on the journey to Mutina as ambassador of the Senate to Antonius [Cicero, Phil. ix]. After he had abandoned his rivalry with his contemporary Cicero in the field of oratory, he applied himself to jurisprudence, and contributed to its systematic
development by numerous writings [cp. Cicero, Pro MurFna, §§ 15-30, and dc Legibus i 17].
(2) Gains Sulpicius Apolllntlris, of Carthage. A distinguished grammarian of the 2nd century a.d., and teacher of Aulus Gellius (q.v.). His extant writings consist of metrical summaries of the comedies of Terence and of the jEneid of Virgil.
(3) Sulpicius SSvlrus, of Aqultanla, gave up a brilliant career as advocate and orator, to devote himself to the Christian priesthood and an ascetic life, and wrote, between 400 and 405 A.D., a short history of the Old Testament and the Christian Church in two volumes, entitled Chronlcd. It is a work executed on the model of Sallust and Tacitus, and displays great industry and stylistic finish.
Summaims. An ancient Etruscan deity of the nocturnal heavens, to whom was ascribed thunder by night; as that by day was ascribed to Jupiter. He had a chapel on the Capitol, and his image in terra cotta stood on the pediment of the great temple. Besides this he had a temple near the Circus Maxlmus, where on the 20th of June an annual sacrifice was offered to him. His true significance became in later times so obscure that his name was falsely explained as meaning the highest of the Manes (sum-mus Sfdnium) and equivalent to Dls pater, or the Greek Pluto.
Sun-dial. See gnomon.
SuSv&taurilla. A Roman sacrifice, consisting of a boar (sus), a ram (<5t?is), and a bullock (taurus), which was offered in nearly all cases of lustration (cp. cut under triumph). For female deities the female animal, and on certain occasions young animals, were selected.
Suppllcatlones. The Roman fast days, or days of humiliation, celebrated originallj-in times of great distress, after the Sibylline books had been duly consulted. The whole population, both of the towns and surrounding country, free-born and emancipated men, women, and children, took part in the solemnity. The whole ceremony had a Greek rather than a Roman colour. From the temple of Apollo, priests and laymen, crowned with wreaths of bay, marched in procession to the sound of singing and the notes of the lyre, visiting all the holy places, especially those where Icctistemla (q.v.) were held. According to the rite introduced from the oriental Greeks of Asia Minor, the Romans touched
I1 Gr. Souidas. Ordinarily, but erroneously, pronounced as two syllables, as in Pope's Ditndttd, iv 28. " For Attic phrase in Pfato let them seek : I poach in Suidas for unlicensed Greek.'1]