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On this page: Stoics – Strabo – Strategus

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STOICS——STRATEGUS.

fragments of works now lost, and is parti­cularly rich in quotations from the works of the Greek dramatists.

The collection, which originally seems to have formed one whole work, has been separated into two distinct portions in the course of time: (1) The " physical, dialec­tical, and ethical eclogues" (or selections) in two books (imperfect at the beginning and end): and (2) the FlOrUlglum. also in two books, on ethical and political subjects, the sections of which are in great part so arranged that each virtue is treated in connexion with its opposite vice.

Stoics. The adherents of a school of philosophy (Stoicism), founded by Zeuo of Citium about 310 A.D. They derived their name from the Painted Stoa (see stoa) in Athens, in which Zeno lectured. For further details, see philosophy.

Stola. The outer garment worn by Roman matrons above the tunica intima or chemise. It was longer than the body, slit open at the top on either side and fastened together by clasps, while below it was provided with a border (instltS) woven on to it, and was gathered up below the breast by a girdle so as to fprm broad falling folds (rug(e). It had either no sleeves or half-sleeves, according as the under tunic had or had not half-sleeves. For the garb of women unmarried or in disgrace, sec toga. Under the Empire the stola fell gradually out of use. After the 4th century A.D. there appears in its stead the dalmdttca, worn by men and women, a kind of tunic with sleeves.

Strabo (Gr. Strabnn). The Greek geo­grapher. He was born of a good family at Amaseia in Poutus about 63 b.c. After the conclusion of his education in philosophy he devoted himself to historical and geographi­cal studies, and undertook long journeys in Asia Minor, also in Egypt up to the boun­daries of Ethiopia, and in parts of Greece and Italy, paying several visits to Rome. He composed a great historic work in forty-seven books,which fromthe fifth book onwards formed a continuation of Polyblus down to his own time; but of this only a few frag­ments remain.

His GeOgrfiphlca, however, we possess complete in seventeen books, with the ex­ception of a few gaps in the seventh book. This was finished about a.d. 23. It is the principal geographical work that has come down to us from ancient times. It consists of descriptions of countries and peoples, and is specially valuable on account of the

extent and importance of the historical and topographical matter it contains, partly derived from personal observation, but chiefly drawn from the best authorities, par­ticularly from Eratosthenes. The first two books contain (1) a criticism, not always just, of the more ancient geographers from the time of Homer; and (2) the mathematical part of physical geography, the weakest portion of the work; books iii-x describe Europe (iii Spain, iv Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and the Alps, v and vi Italy, vii the north and east of Europe to the Danube, viii-x Greece); xi—xvi Asia; xvii Africa. Strabo gives detailed accounts of manners and customs, history and constitutions, whereas, in topography, he generally gives only what is of most importance. His style is clear and attractive. Notwithstanding a great extension of geographical knowledge, the work was not superseded by any later one, and indeed even in the Middle Ages was still used in selections as a school-book in Constantinople. [SeeTozer's;SWee<!'O)is,1893.] Strategus (Greek). A general. Among the Lanedcemonians, it was a special designation of leaders of those armies which were not commanded by the kings. They were ap­pointed by the public assembly, or by the ephors commissioned thereby. At Athens, there was annually elected, by show of hands (chelrdtdnlft} in the public assembly, a board of Ten Generals, who had the superinten­dence of all military affairs. Only those were elected to this high and influential office who were lawfully married, and who possessed landed property in Attica. In earlier times they superintended operations both by land and sea, and assumed the actual command in turn on successive days, while they held a council of war in common. In later times no more were sent to the seat of war than were deemed sufficient for the purpose ; and, from the time when the Athenians carried on their wars mainly by means of mercenaries, soldiers of experi­ence, who did not belong to the board, were not unfrequently entrusted with the com­mand, and were called stratcgi during the continuance of the war. Those strategi who remained at home, besides seeing that the country was protected against hostile invasion, had the control of the war-taxes and the MerarcMa, the selection and equip­ment of the troops and the jurisdiction affecting all the law-suits connected with the war-taxes and trierarchy, as well as all the military offences which had not been punished by the general at the seat of war.

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