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chorus as they remained stationary after the completion of the two preceding move ments. He is regarded as the founder of ! the loftier style of lyric poetry. His festal | songs, afterwards divided into twenty-six books, were chiefly on mythological themes, especially the myths of Thebes and Troy, in simple metrical forms closely allied to epic verse, and in an epic dialect which contains a few Doric idioms. His splendid power of expression received the highest praise from the ancients; he was called the Homer of lyric poets [cp. Quintilian x 1 § 62], and it used to be said that Homer's soul had passed into him [Antho- \ locjia Palatina vii 75]. We only possess fragments of his poetry. i
Stheno. One of the Gorgons (q.v.).
Sthenobcsa. See anteia.
Stilus [wrongly speU stylus}. An iron instrument, pointed at one end and flat at the other, for writing on tablets covered with a thin coating of wax. (See writing materials.)
Stlpendium. The Roman military pay. Originally the tribe had to contribute the necessary means to provide for its contin gent. It was only at the beginning of the war against Veii in 404 b.c. that payment of a sum by the State was introduced, i This was given to the soldiers, either before or after the campaign, as compensation for the costs of their living during its continuance. When this had gradually become a regular payment, it became cus tomary in making it to deduct everything which the State provided for the army in the way of clothing-, arms, and food; but under the Empire maintenance was given free. In the time of Polybius the pay of legionaries was 120 denarii (£4 4s.); of centurions twice, and of knights three times that amount. Csesar increased it to 225 denarii (£7 17s.) for a legionary, Domitian to 300 (£10 10s.). The praetorians received ] under Tiberius 720 denarii (£25 5s.). j
Stipcndium is also the name of the fixed normal tax imposed on conquered provinces, j which might consist of money, or produce, or both. During the Republic, when a . country was conquered, this was usually I
fixed according to the amount of the exist'ng taxes, and the country divided into fiscal districts, and the officials of the chief places in each compelled to pay in the portion which fell to them. Under Augustus the taxes were for the first time fixed upon the basis of a measurement of the ground occupied, and of a computation of property (census). The stipendium was either a ground-tax (trlbutum tOll), or a personal tax (tributum cupitis), which was partly a poll-tax, partly a property-tax, partly a tax on the trade carried on by the individual. In exceptional cases special taxes were also imposed. Those bound to pay the stipendium were called stipendlaril.
Stfia. The Greek term for a colonnade, such as those built outside or inside temples, around dwelling-houses, gymnasia, and market-places. They were also set up separately as ornaments of the streets and open places. The simplest form is that of a roofed colonnade, with a wall on one side, which was often decorated with paintings. Thus in the market-place at Athens the stoa posclle (the Painted Colonnade) was decorated with Polygnotus' representations of the destruction of Troy, the fight of the Athenians with the Amazons, and the battles of Marathon and (Enoe. The st&a bfislleids, also in the market-place, in which the archdn basllrtts sat as judge, was probably divided longitudinally into three parts by two rows of columns, and was the pattern for the Roman basilica (q.v.).—Zeno of Citium taught in the stoa poecile, and his adherents accordingly obtained the name of Stoics.
Among the Romans similar colonnades attached to other buildings, or built out in the open, were called porticus. They were named from the neighbouring edifices (e.g. porticus Concordlce, close to the temple of Concord); from their builders (e.g. porticus Pompeia); also from the pictures set up in them (e.g. porticus Argonautarum); and from the business chiefly carried on in them, as porticus Argentarla, the hall of the money-changers. These halls were the chief places for public intercourse among the Greeks and Romans.
Stobseus (loannus). Of StBbi in Macedonia. About 500 A.D. he composed, for the education of his son Septlmius, a philosophical anthology in four books, from the extracts which he had made in the course of his extensive reading from more than 500 Greek poets and prose writers. It is of great value, as it includes numerous