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On this page: Soccus – Socli – Socrates – Sodalitas

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SOCCUS——SODALITAS.

four feet in length, to the end of which a leathern sling was fastened. One thong of this reached to the other end of the staff, and was together with this held fast by the fustib&laior, who swung the staff several times round his head, and suddenly let go I the longer thong, thus throwing a larger missile with much greater force than was possible with a simple sling.

Soccus. A loose slipper, or light, low shoe, fitting either foot, which the Romans ; adopted from the Greeks. It was the characteristic of comedy, as the cothurnus was of tragedy [Horace, A. P. 80 (of the iambic metre): "Hunc socci ceperg pgdem, grandesque cothurni"].

Sdcli. Among the Romans, the socii, as distinguished in constitutional law from Roman subjects, were the allies who, while their independence was recognised, stood in a more or less dependent relation to the Roman State. Under the Republic^ up to the time when the right of citizenship was conferred on all the free inhabitants of Italy (89 B.C.), the Latins, and the Italian communities on the same footing with them, enjoyed a privileged position amongst the other allies. In the military organization of the Roman Republic the contingents which they furnished were called socii, in contradistinction to the legions and the non-Italian auxiliaries. (See auxilia, and cp. legion.) Socii nUvdles are the crews, furnished by the allied towns, of the ships of war.

Socrates. Of Athens; born 469 b.c., son of the sculptor Sophrdniscus and the mid­wife PhsenarSte. He pursued for a time his father's art, but soon gave it up, holding it to be his proper task in life to labour at the moral and intellectual im­provement of himself and his friends. His indifference to external necessities enabled him to bear his poverty with the same equanimity which he preserved in dealing with the quarrelsome temper of his wife Xanthippe. He took no part in affairs of State, yet did not withdraw from the per­formance of his duties as a citizen in war He did not give formal instruc-

tion, but sought by means of dialectical dis­course, in which any one might join without payment, to lead on the young people who used to collect around him to think and act in accordance with reason. Different as I are the representations of him given by his pupils Xen5phon and Plato, yet they agree in this, that he was a character of absolute moral purity, whose clear peace of mind

was troubled by no passion, in whom reason at all times asserted its supremacy over sensuality, and whom no considera­tions could move from the declaration of his convictions. He preserved this un­shaken fidelity to his convictions, not only in earlier passages of his life, but also at the time when a capital charge was brought against him, of being out of accord with the religion of the State, of intro­ducing new gods (an accusation founded upon his belief in the daimon, an inward voice, which used to warn him from evil and urge him towards good), and of cor­rupting youth. Although it would have been an easy thing for him to have escaped the sentence of death, he did not hesitate for a moment in giving expression to his conviction in the most open manner, and for that conviction was put to death by being compelled to drink a draught of hemlock. (See also philosophy and plato, with cut.)

Sddalltas. [The word properly means an association or club, and was especially applied to the] religious brotherhoods among the Romans. By order of the State, they attended to the cult of some particular object of worship by jointly celebrating certain sacrifices and feasts, especially on the anniversary of the foundation of that cult.

The members, called sddales, stood in a legally recognised position of mutual obliga­tion, which did not allow any one of them to appear against another as a prosecutor in a criminal case, or to become patronns of the prosecutor of a sodalis, or to offi­ciate as judge upon a sodalis. Such a brotherhood were the Saddles Augustales, appointed a.d. 14 by the Senate for the cult of the deified Augustus, a college of 21, and afterwards of 28, members of senatorial rank, which also took upon itself the cult of Claudius after his deification, and bore, after that, the official title Saddles Augus-talfs Claudiales. Besides these there were the Saddles Fldviales TUiales for the cult of Vespasian and Titus, the Hadridnales for that of Hadrian, Antdnlnidni for that of Antoninus Pius and of the successively deified emperors. (Cp. collegium.)

[The secular clubs, sddalltates, or collegia sddalicid, were, in the later Republican age, much turned to account for political objects, and their organization used for purposes of bribery. See Cicero's speech Pro Plancio. It was very common for young Romans to belong to an ordinary

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