The Ancient Library

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hand upon the point (fig. 2, c, d, ft, i). After­wards the signn were also furnished with


(Bonn Museum).

a vexillum (fig. 2,6) and with various orna­ments on the pole, in particular round

cohorts, probably as early as the time of Caesar, had particular slgna ; after Trajan they borrowed from the Parthians the draco. This was the image of a large dragon fixed upon a lance, with gaping jaws of silver, and with the rest of its body formed of coloured silk. When the wind blew down the open jaws, the body was inflated, [Vegetius, De Re AliUtari ii 13; Ammianus Marcellinus, xvi 10 § 7. This last is to be seen on monuments among the standards of foreign nations (k, m), who also had a standard resembling a mediaeval banner (?)•] On the march and in an attack with close columns, the signa were carried in the first line; in a pitched battle, behind the front rank.

Silenus (Gr. SeilenOs). A primitive deity m the legends of Asia Minor. He is a divinity of the woodland and the fountains, whom people tried to catch in order to make him prophesy and sing to them. Thus king Midas of Phrygia got him into his power by mixing wine with a spring from which he used to drink, and made him instruct him in all kinds of wisdom. After­wards, as a son of Hermes and a Nymph, or of Pan, and as the oldest of all the Satyrs, he was added to the train of Dionysus, and was regarded as his teacher and trainer and his constant companion. He is said to have prompted the god to invent the culti­vation of the vine and the keeping of bees. He is described as a little old man, pot­bellied, with bald head and snub nose, his whole body very hairy ; never without his

b c d e f g

c, d, g, h, i, Bellorius, Col. Antonin,; b, c,f, De Rnbeis, Arcus Constant.; tc, I, De Rubei", Arcus

Scvvri; m, Miiseo Borbonico, Hi tav. Iviii.


(Guhl and Koner, fig. 524.)

plates, often with representations of gods, emperors, and generals (e, /, g). The

skin of wine, always drunk, and hence usually riding on an ass, and led and sup-

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