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On this page: Scutum – Scylax – Scylla

671

SCUTUM——SCYLLA.

red), but were themselves richly adorned with colouring. [It is also held that] originally, even the bare parts of stone figures were painted; afterwards a coating of wax was thought enough [Vitruvius, vii 9], In particular statues, many artists coloured only the characteristic parts, fringes of gar­ments, sandals, armour, weapons, snoods or head wrappings, and of the parts of the body the lips, eyes, hair, beard, and nipples. Probably the cheeks, too, received a light reddish tinge ; but all was done with discretion. The colours chiefly used were red, blue, and yellow, or gilding. The employ­ment of different materials for the extremities, and for the drapery, also produced the effect of colouring. Simi­larly metal-sculpture secured variety of colour by the application of gold, silver, and copper to the bronze. The sparkle of the eyes was often repre­sented by inlaid precious stones or enamel. Particular parts in marble statues, such as attributes, weapons, implements, were also made of metal. [There are examples of this in the pediments of JEgins, and in the frieze of the Parthenon. Under the Empire metal was sometimes used for the drapery. Thus the Braschi AntmSus in the Vatican was formerly draped in bronze.]—On ancient stone-cutting, see gems ; on terracottas, see pottery ; on working in metal, see toreutic art.

Scutum. The large wooden shield of the Roman legionaries. (See shield.)

Scylax. Of Caryanda in Caria. He undertook, at the command of the Persian king Darius Hystaspis, about 510 B.C., a voyage to explore the coast of Asia from the Indus to the Red Sea, and composed a report of his voyage, which is now lost. His j name is erroneously attached to a descrip­tion, composed before the middle of the 4th century B.C., and preserved only in a cor- ' nipt and incomplete form, of a voyage from the northern Pillar of Hercules along the European coast of the Mediterranean, through the Hellespont and Bosporus, round the shores of the Euxine, then along the Asiatic and African coast of the Medi­terranean to the southern Pillar of Hercules, and out beyond it to the island of Cerne.

Scylla. (1) In Homer, daughter of Cra-tseis; a terrible monster of the sea, with a loud bark like that of a young dog, twelve shapeless feet, and six long necks, each of them bearing a horrid head with three rows

of teeth closely set. Her lower half lies in a dark cavern, which is in the middle of a rock, smooth of surface, not to be climbed, and rising up into the clouds; while with her heads she fishes for dolphins, sea-dogs, and the larger animals of the sea. If a ship come too near to her, with each of her six heads she snatches up a man of the crew, as from the ship of Odysseus. Oppo-

(18) * ARTIST PAIHTING A STATUE OF HERUES. (Mural painting from Pompeii; Naples Museum.)

site her, a bow-shot off, is a lower rock with a wild Jig tree on it, and under it the whirlpool of Charybdis, which three times in the day sucks in the sea and discharges it again in a terrible whirlpool, against which even the help of Poseidon is unavail­ing. Whoever tries to avoid one of the two evils falls a prey to the other [Homer, Od. xi 85-110]. In later times Scylla and Charybdis, the position of which is left uncertain by Homer, were supposed to be placed in the Strait of Messina, Scylla being identified with a projecting rock on the Italian side. She was also made a daughter of Phorcys and of Hecate Crataeis. When Heracles, as he is passing by, is robbed by her of one of Geryon's oxen, he slays her in her cavern; but her father burns her corpse, and thus recalls her to life. According to another myth, she was originally a beautiful princess or sea Nymph, loved now by Zeus, now by Poseidon or Glaucus or Triton, until she was changed by the jealousy of her rivals, Hera, Amphi-trite, or Circe, into a monster, imagined as

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