The Ancient Library

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On this page: Salmoneus – Salpinx – Salus – Salutatio – Sambuca – Samnis – Sancus – Sandalium



also with the explanation of their inner meaning. His model is Thucydides, whom he strives to imitate, not only in his love of truth and his impartiality, but also in the general plan of his works, especially in the interweaving of speeches in order to char­acterize situations and persons, as well as in his phraseology, which is often brief and compressed even to obscurity. To literary form he paid more attention than was given by any Roman historian before him. In his language he purposely diverged from the ordinary language of the time, espe­cially by closely imitating the style of the elder Cato. This mannerism of style, as well as the inconsistency between his earlier life and the censorious moral rigour displayed in his writings, drew upon him severe criticism, even among his contem­poraries. Nevertheless his works have always had_a high reputation.

Salmoneus. Son of jEolus, husband of Alcldice, and father of Tyro (see neleus). He founded Salmone in Elis, whither he had migrated from Thessaly. He usurped the name and the sacrifices of Zeus. He even imitated thunder and lightning by trailing dried skins and caldrons behind his chariot and flinging torches into the air. For this reason Zeus slew him with the lightning, and destroyed his town together with its inhabitants. His second wife, Sldero, had ill-treated her step-daughter Tyro, and was therefore slain by Tyro's sons, Pgllas and Neleus, at the altar of Hera, where she had taken refuge.

Salpinx. The Greek name for the long trumpet, like the Roman <«&«, with which the signals were given in the army.- It was also employed in religious ceremonies. (See cut.)

Salus. The personification of health and prosperity among the Romans. As god­dess of health, she was identified with the Greek Hyyieia (g.v.\ the daughter of Ascll-pius, and represented in the same way. As the deity representing the welfare, of the Roman people (Stilus Publica Pfjpfili

RBmani) she had from the year 302 B.C. a temple on the Quirinal. Under the Em-l pire, she was also worshipped as guardian goddess of the emperors (Salus Augusta). Prayers were frequently made to her by the priestly colleges and the political bodies, especially at the beginning of the year, in times of sickness, and on the birthdays of the emperors. As her counterpart among the Sabines, we have the goddess Strenla. (See sthen.s.)

Salutatlo. The morning greeting which Romans of rank were in the habit of re­ceiving from clients, friends, and admirers in the atrium during the first two hours of the day; for this purpose the callers gathered in the vestibule even before sun­rise. [Martial, iv 8: prlma salutantes atque altlra contfnet hora; Pliny, Ep. iii 12, officia anteiucana.}

Sambnca (Gr. sambyke). A triangular, stringed instrument resembling a harp, having a piercing tone. When played, its pointed end stood downwards.

Samnis. See gladiatores.

Sancus. Usually called Semo Sancus (see semones). A genius worshipped by the Sabines, Umbrians, and Romans, represent­ing holiness and good faith in human life. In Rome, he was principally worshipped under the name Deus Fidius (from fides, " faith") as god of oaths, god of the public laws of hospitality and of nations, also of international intercourse and of the safety of the roads, which were placed under his protection. An oath in his name could be taken only under the open sky ; therefore even his temple had a hole in the roof, and, when an oath by him was taken at home, the man swearing went into the uncovered court. On account of many points of resemblance he was identified with Hercules. He had a temple on the Quirinal (the foundation of which was cele­brated June 5), and another on the island in the Tiber [Ovid, Fasti, vi 213-218].

Sandallum. A Greek covering for the foot, principally worn by women, consisting of a thick sole of wood, cork, or leather, with a strap carried over the foot in front of the socket of the great toe, passed between this and the second toe, and tied to the other bands fastened to the edge of the sole before and behind. The back was supported by strap-work, which was often very neatly intertwined above the ankles. (See cuts.)

Soles of the more simple kind were bound underneath the foot by a strap

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