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On this page: Rheda – Rhesus – Rhetoric



bus (q.v.\ the god of the river, made her his wife. According to an older tradition, the mother of the founders of Rome was Ilia, daughtBr of ^Eneas (q.v.) and Lavmia.

Kheda. See r/eda.

Rhesus. Son of Eioneus, or Strymon, and one of the Muses, king of the Thracians. He came to help Priam, but, in the very night after his arrival before Troy, was surprised by Dlomedes and Odysseus, and slain by the former, together with twelve of his companions, while Odysseus took away his swift! horses of glistening white­ness. It had been prophesied thart, if these led on Trojan fodder, or drank of the Xanthus before Troy, the town could not be taken.

Ehetoric. Among the Greeks, rhetdrike comprised the practical as well as the theo­retical art of speaking, and rhetor denoted an orator no less than a teacher of oratory. Among the Romans, it denoted only the latter, the actual speaker being called orator. The first men, who reduced oratory to a sys­tem capable of being taught, appeared among the Sicilian Greeks, who, according to the testimony of the ancients, were distinguished for the keenness of their understanding and their love of disputation [Cicero, Brutus 46]. The Syracusau corax (ctVc. 500 b.c.) is said to have been the first who elaborated systematic rules for forensic speeches, and laid them down in writing in a manual on the art of rhetoric (technc). His pupil TlsIAs (born ctVc. 480), and after him the Leontine GoRGlAs, further cultivated the art, and from about 427 carried it to Greece itself, and in particular to Athens. In the judicial proceedings and the assem­blies of the people, the practice of oratory had long been familiar at Athens, though it had not been reduced to technical rules, and oratory had had a conspicuous repre­sentative in pericles. At Athens the theory of oratory was further cultivated by the sophists (Gr. Sophistai, " men who professed knowledge or wisdom"). Their instruction in style and rhetoric was en­joyed by numerous Athenians, who desired by the aid of study and practice to attain to expertness in speaking.

The first Athenian, who, besides im­parting instruction in the new art, applied it practically to speaking in the assemblies of the people and before courts, and who published speeches as patterns for study, was antiphon (died b.c. 411), the earliest of the " Ten Attic Orators." In his extant speeches the oratorical art is shown

still in its beginnings. These, with the speeches interwoven in the historical work of his great pupil Thucj'dides, give an idea of the crude and harsh style of the technical oratory of the time; while the speeches of andoc!dbs (died about 399), the second of the Ten Orators, display a style that is still uninfluenced by the rhetorical teaching of the age. The first really classical orator is lys!as (died about 360), who, while in possession of all the technical rules of the time, handles with perfect mastery the common language of every-day life. isocrates (436-338) is reckoned as the father of artistic oratory properly so called ; he is a master in the careful choice of words, in the rounding off and rhythmical formation of periods, in the apt employment of figures of speech, and in everything which lends charm to lan-j guage. By his mastery of style he has exercised the most far-reaching influence upon the oratorical diction of all succeeding time. Of the three kinds of speeches which were distinguished by the ancients, poli­tical (or deliberative), forensic, and show-speeches (or declamations), he specially cultivated the last. Among his numerous pupils is is/eus (about 400-350), who in ; his general method of oratory closely follows I Lysias, though he shows a more matured j skill in the controversial use of oratorical } resources. The highest point was attained ' by his pupil demosthenes, the greatest orator of antiquity (384^322); next to him comes his political opponent ^EsCHlNES (389-314). The number of the Ten Orators is completed by their contemporaries hype-rides, lycurgus, and dinarchus. In the last of these the beginning of the decline of oratorical art is already clearly apparent.

To the time of Demosthenes belongs the oldest manual of rhetoric which has been preserved to us, that of anaximenes of Lampsacus. This is founded on the practice of oratory, and, being intended for imme­diate practical use, shows no trace of any philosophical groundwork or philosophical research. Greek rhetoric owes to aris­totle its proper reduction into a scientific system. In contrast to Isocrates, who aims at perfection of form and style, Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, lays special stress on : subject-matter, and mainly devotes himself j to setting forth the means of producing \ conviction. When Athens had lost her | liberty, practical oratory was more and more reduced to silence; the productions of the last orators, such as demetrius of


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