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emperor and the Senate, quaestors were only employed in the senatorial provinces, and were not abolished till the constitution of the provinces in general was altered by Diocletian. Four quaestors were told off for service to the consuls. The two quces-tores principle, or Augusti, were a new creation : they were officers assigned to the emperors, if the latter were not consuls, in which case they ^ onld already be entitled to two qusestors. As secretaries to the emperor, they had to read his decrees to the Senate at its sittings. From these qusestors was developed, in the time of Constantine, the qucestor sacri palatii, the chancellor of the Empire.
Quattuorrlri. The Roman term for an official body consisting of four men. (See vtgintisexviri.)
fluind6cimvlri. The Roman term for an official body consisting of fifteen men, especially that appointed for the inspection of the Sibylline books. (See sibylla.)
ftuinqnatrus. A festival celebrated at Rome on the 19th of March, in honour of Mars and (in a greater degree) of Minerva, whose temple had been founded on this day on the Aventine. An incorrect explanation of the name quinquatms, which means the fifth day after the ides, led to the festival in honour of Minerva being afterwards prolonged to five days. It was celebrated by all whose employment was under the protection of the goddess, such as teachers and their pupils. The latter obtained a holiday during the festival, and began a new course of study when it was over. The former received at this time their yearly stipend—the mincrval. The festival of Minerva was also celebrated by women and children (in their capacity of spinners and weavers), by artisans and artists of every kind, and by poets and painters. The first day of the festival was celebrated with sacrifices by the State in honour of the founding of the temple. On the following days the gladiators performed, and there were social gatherings in the houses. On June 13 the minor qiiinqvatrus took place. This festival lasted three days. It was celebrated by the guild of the flute-players, an important and numerous body at Rome. They honoured the goddess as their special patroness by meeting at her temple, by masked processions through the city, and by a banquet in the temple of Jupiter of the Capitol.
ftuinquennales. The officials chosen every five years in the Italian municipalities (see
mdnicipium), corresponding to the Roman censors.
Quinqueremes. Roman ships (q.v.) with five banks of oars.
Qmntilian(AforcMS FaKus QuintlllSmis). The celebrated Roman rhetorician, born about 35 A.D. at Calagurris in Spain. After he had received his training as an orator at Rome, he went home about 59 a.d., hut returned again to Rome in 68 a.d. in the train of Galba. He there began to practise as an advocate, and also gave instruction in rhetoric. In this latter capacity he achieved such fame that he was able to open a school of rhetoric in the reign of Vespasian, and received payment from the State. After twenty years' work he retired from his public duties in a.d. 90, and after some time devoted himself to the education of the grandchildren of Domitilla, Domitian's sister, for which he was rewarded by the emperor with the rank of consul. Though materially prosperous, his happiness was disturbed by the loss of his young wife and his two sons. [He died between 97 and 100 a.d.]
Of his works on rhetoric, composed in his later years, we possess the one that is most important, that on the training of an orator (De Institutions OratOrla)in twelve books. This he wrote in two years; but it was not until after repeated revision that he published it, just before the death of Domitian in 96. He dedicated it to his friend, the orator Victorius Marcellus, that he might use it for the education of his son Geta. This work gives a complete course of instruction in rhetoric, including all that is necessary for training in practical elocution, from the preliminary education of boyhood and earliest youth to the time of appearance in public. It describes a perfect orator, who, according to Quintilian, should be not only skilful in rhetoric, but also of good moral character, and concludes with practical advice. Especially interesting is the first book, which gives the principles of training and instruction, and the tenth book, for its criticisms on the Greek and Latin prose authors and poets recommended to the orator for special study. [Many of these criticisms, however, are not original.] Quintilian's special model, and his main authority, is Cicero, whose classical style, as opposed to the debased style of his own time, he imitates successfully in his work. A collection of school exercises (deriamatwnes) which bears his name is probably not by him, but by one of his