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duced by kerines [from the coccus llicis]; then by using the Tyrian method, they obtained the tyrianthlnum, the Tyrian shell-purple, and the variety called the hysginum [from Gr. hysge=& variety of prlnds, or quercus cocci/era. (Pliny, N.H. ix 124-141.) For further details, see Bliimner's Technologic, i 224-240].
Purple robes were used at an early date by the Greeks as a mark of dignity. Even the Athenian archons wore purple mantles officially. In Rome at one time broad, at another narrow, stripes of purple on the toga and tunic served as marks of distinction for senators, magistrates, and members of the equestrian order. The robes of the general were dyed in purple (see paluda-mentum); so also was the gold-embroidered mantle worn by one who celebrated a triumph. For a long time home-purple was used; Tyrian purple was not introduced till the middle of the 1st century B.C., and from that time it became a luxury. In spite of repeated attempts to check by imperial decrees the use of real purple among private individuals, robes trimmed with purple, or altogether dyed with it, became more and more used. Only a complete robe of blatta, the finest kind of purple, of which there were five varieties, was reserved as an imperial privilege, and any private persons who wore it were punished as being guilty of high treason. (Codex Theodosianus iv 40, 1^ purpura quce blatta vel oxyblatta, vcl hijacinthlnd dicitur.} From the 2nd century a.d. the emperors took part in this lucrative industry, and from the end of the 4th century a.d. the manufacture of the blatta became an imperial monopoly.
Puteal. The Latin term for a circular stone inclosure, consisting of a dwarf wall, surrounding either (1) the mouth of a well, or (2) a spot struck by lightning. Italian superstition demanded that every flash of lightning which struck and was buried in the earth should have, as it were, a grave and a propitiatory offering, as in the case of a human being. According to the place where the flash fell, this offering was made, either by the State or by private individuals, in the earlier times according to the directions of the ponttflcSs, at a later date after consultation with the Etruscan hdmspices. The earth which was touched by the divine fire was carefully collected [Lucan i 606], and inclosed in a coffin constructed out of four side-pieces and without any bottom (this was
the burying of the lightning). Then round the coffin a shaft, consisting of four walls and open at the top, was built up to the surface of the ground. A place which had thus been consecrated by the offering which the harusptces made of a sheep two 3'ears old (bldens) was specially called a b%dental, and was not allowed to be desecrated. According to the pontifical rite introduced by Numa, the propitiatory offering consisted of onions, hair, and sardels. If a human being had been struck by lightning, his body was not burnt, but buried on the spot [Pliny, N. H. ii 145]. Such a spot was called a bidental, and a propitiatory offering was made on his behalf [Festus, p. 27 ; Nonius, pp. 53, 26],
[The puteal, with bay wreaths, ryres, and a pair of pincers, may be seen on coins of the gens Scrlbonia (see cut). The ancient puteal in the J Forum, near the Arcus Fain/anus, was repaired by Scribonius Libo, whence it was called the Puteal Libonis or Puteal Scribonianum. In its neighbour hood he erected a tribunal for the praetor, which led to its becoming the resort of litigants, money-lenders, etc. (Hor., Sat. ii 6, 35, Ep. i 19, 8; Cic., Pro Sestio 18).]
Pyanepsia. A festival celebrated at Athens on the seventh day of PyanSpston, the end of October, in honour of the departing god of summer, Apollo. The festival received its name from the cooked beans which were offered to the god as firstfruits of autumn. Another firstfruit offering of this festival was the EireslonS, a branch of olive or bay, bound with purple and white wool, and hung about with all sorts of autumn fruits, pastry, and small vessels full of honey, wine, and oil. This branch was borne by a boy whose parents were both alive; a song, which bore the same name Eiresione, was sung, while he was escorted by a procession to the temple of the god, where the wreath was deposited as a votive offering. Other branches were hung at the doors of the houses. In later times this festival was also kept as a mark of gratitude for the safe return of Theseus from Crete, which was supposed to have taken place on this day; and the cooking of the beans was regarded as commemorating the cooking of the scanty remains of the provisions of