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On this page: Provocatio – Proxenus



In 27 B.C. Augustus divided the then existing provinces into imperial and sena­torial. He entrusted ten, in a state of com­plete tranquillity, to the Senate; viz. Africa, Asia Minor, Achaia, Illyria or Dalmatia, Macedonia, Sicily, Crete with Gyrene, Bithynia, Sardinia, and South Spain. He took into his own hands the twelve which still required military occupation. These were: North Spain, Lusltania, the four provinces of Gaul (Narbonensis, Luijdu-nensis or Celtlca, Aquttdnia, and Belglca), Upper and Lower Germany, Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. Changes were made in this partition later on; but the provinces acquired after 27 b.c. fell to the emperor. For the senatorial provinces the governors were appointed on the whole in the ancient manner, i.e. by the lot, and for one year; hut with this difference, that five, and after­wards ten to thirteen, years had to elapse after the consulship or praetorship before past consuls or past prsetors proceeded to their provinces. The former received the provinces which were from the very first called consular, viz. Asia and Africa, the latter the others, which were praetorian; but both sets of governors alike were styled proconsuls, and were attended by the same retinue as heretofore. The im­perial provinces, which became three times as numerous by the time of Trajan, were governed by the emperor himself through deputies whose continuance in office de­pended on the will of the emperor who appointed them. These deputies, according to the importance of the province, were either of consular or praetorian rank, Iggati Augusti pro prmtore (see legati), or pro-curatores (q.v.). Egypt alone, which was governed as an imperial domain, was under & prcefecttts {q.v.}. The financial adminis­tration of the senatorial provinces was managed by quaestors; that of the imperial, by procurators, who also collected in the senatorial provinces the revenues directly due to the emperor. Augustus established a fixed stipend for all officers outside Rome, and thus afforded a real relief to the oppressed provincials. Considerable alle­viation was also secured for them by the limitation to the employment of State tax-collectors. The same result was promoted by the longer continuance of the adminis­tration in the imperial provinces, and the greater facilities granted for bringing an in­dictment, by means of a regular procedure before the Senate. Moreover the emperor, after the proconsular power over all pro-

vinces had been conferred on Augustus, 23 b.c., ranked as the highest authority over j all the governors, and heard complaints aa well as appeals.

ProvScatlo. The Roman term for the appeal from the verdict of the magistrate to the decision of the people.

Under the kings the court of appeal was the cSmltla. cttrlata ; after Servius Tullius, the comitia centurlata. While, under the arbitrary rule of the kings, the right of appeal was allowed, on the establishment of the Republic, in 509 b.c., this was imposed on the consuls as a duty, and was repeatedly enjoined by special enactments in all cases where it was a question of life and death, or of corporal punishment. The appeal was only valid within the city, and the pome.rlum, but not in the camp. More­over, no one could appeal against the dictator. When afterwards (454 b.c.), besides the consuls, the tribunes and sediles acquired the right of imposing a fine (multa, q.v.), a maximum limit was fixed for it, and if that was exceeded, there was an appeal to the comitia trlbuta.

As this appeal was expected in all legiti­mate cases, trials of this kind were held immediately before the comitia concerned with such appeals; and after the verdict had been pronounced by the magistrate presiding, it was either confirmed or re­versed by the votes of the people. About 195 B.C. the right of appeal was extended over the whole of Italy and the provinces. After permanent courts for certain offences had been established, the qucestiones per-pet&CE (see qu^stio), the jurisdiction of the people, and with it the appeal thereto, be­came more and more limited. For the^ro-vocatio under the Empire, see appellatio.

Prox&nns (State-friend). The Greek term for the representative of a State who was appointed, from the citizens of another State, to attend to the interests of its citizens there resident, as often as they needed legal protection and assistance. In the interests of foreigners, many States appointed such representatives from among their own citizens. Their position may be compared with that of our consuls. The proxenus received many distinctions and honours from the State which he represented. To be nominated proxenus was in some cases only an honorary distinction, which the State conferred on such foreigners as re­sided in it as aliens (sec met<eci), and were therefore unable to do any service abroad for the citizens of the State in which they

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