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On this page: Pottery (continued)

510

POTTEKY.

presents an early Greek type of kiln, which is domed over, and has a space for the fuel on one side, and a door in the side of the upper chamber, through which the pottery could be put iu and withdrawn. The second shows a potter applying painted bands while the vessel revolves on the wheel (Prof. Middleton, I.e., figs. 3 and 20). Sec also vases.]

The romans, with whom, as early as the time of the second king, Xiima, a guild (collegium') of potters existed, neither had vessels of painted clay amongst their house­hold goods, nor did they employ it for the ornamentation of their graves. In earlier times at least, they used only coarse and en­tirely unornamented ware. They imported artistically executed vases from their neigh­bours, the Etruscans. In the last hundred years of the Republic, as well as in the first hundred years after Christ, the chief place for the manufacture of the red crockery generally used in households was Arretium (Arezzo) [Pliny, xxxv 160; Martial, i 54, 6, xiv 1)8; Dennis, Etruria, ii 335]. The ware of this place was distinguished by a coral-red colour, and was generally fur­nished with glaze and delicate reliefs ; in fact, ornamentation in relief was widely employed in later Roman pottery. Very much valued was the domestic ware, called vasa Sdmla, which was an imitation of the earlier pottery brought from the island of Samos. It was formed of rine, red-coloured clay, baked very hard, of thin make, and very delicate workmanship. It was glazed and generally adorned with reliefs, and served especially for the table use of re­spectable people who could not afford silver.

While this fine ware was made by hand, the manufacture of ordinary pottery as well as of bricks and pipes, especially under the Empire, formed an important industry among capitalists, who, on finding good clay on their estates, built potteries and tile-works, and either worked them on their own account through slaves or had them carried on by lessees. The emperor himself, after the time of Tiberius, and the members of the imperial family, especially the females, pursued a similar trade, as is shown by the trade-mark which, according to Roman cus­tom, was borne by clay manufactxires.

The production of lanje statues of clay, apart from the purpose of modelling, be­longs amongst the Greeks to the early times. It continued much longer amongst the Italians, especially amongst the Etrus­cans, who furnisher] the temple at Rome

TANAtiltA FIGTItlNK.

with clay images of the gods before the victorious campaigns in the East brought marble and bronze productions of Greek art to Rome. On the other hand, throughout the whole of antiquity, the manufacture of small clay figures of very various kinds, ibr the decoration of dwellings and graves, and for playthings for children, etc., was most extensively practised. They were gene­rally made in moulds, and after baking were decorated with a coating of colour. Ib

excellence which Greek art attained in this department, as in others, is shown by the " figurines " discovered at Tanagra in and after 1874, specimens of which are given in figs. 3, 4. Very important too was the manufacture of clay reliefs, partly with figured representation and partly with ara­besque patterns, for the embellishment of columns, windows, cornices, and also of tombstones and sarcophagi. [Sec Dumont and Chaplain, Ccramiqucs, 1888: Kekule, Thonfiguren aus Tanagra, 1878, Me antikcn Tirracottcn, 1880, and Die Terra-c.ottcn van Sicilien, 1884; Heuzey, Cata-logni' (Ics figurines antiques dc ierre ciiilf

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