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On this page: Polygnotus – Polyhymnia – Polyidus – Polymestor – Polymnia – Polynices – Polyphemus – Polyptychon – Polytechnus – Polyxena – Pomerium – Pomona – Pompeius Trogus

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POLYGNOTUS——POMPEIUS TROGUS.

return for the murder of Polydorns. Poly-mestor then murders his own son, and is blinded and killed by Ilione.

(3) A Greek sculptor, of the school of Rhodes, author (in conjunction with Age-sauder and AthenSdorus) of the celebrated group of LaocSon (q.v.).

Polygnotus. The celebrated Greek painter of the island of Thas5s. He worked chiefly in Athens, whither he had been invited by Cimon about 460 B.C., and where he received the citizenship. His most cele­brated paintings were the Capture of Troy and the Descent of Odysseus into Hades, in the hall erected by the Cnidians at Delphi. We possess a description of them in consider­able detail by Pausanias [x 25-31]. Other celebrated paintings by him (though several of his contemporaries were associated with him in their execution) were to be seen in the St8a Poacile, the Capture of Troy and the Battle of Marathon [ib. 16], and in the temples of the Dioscuri [ib. 18 § 1], and of Theseus at Athena. Though his works were only tinted outlines traced upon a coloured background, without shading and without any perspective, and sketched, as it were, in simple relief, all on the same plane, still his clear, rhythmical composi­tion, the delicacy of his drawing, the im-pressiveness of his contours, and the nobility of his figures were highly celebrated [Over-beck's Schriftquellen, 1067-1079].

Paiyhymnla (or Polymnia). The Muse of serious songs of adoration. (See muses.)

Pdljidus. Son of Coeranus, grandson of Abas, great-grandson of MSlampus, father of Euchenor, Astycratla, and Manto; like his ancestor, a celebrated seer, who flourished, according to different accounts, either at Corinth or Argos or Mggara. To his son he prophesied his death before Troy; and the son of Minos, Glaucus (q.v., 2), he raised from the dead. At Megara he cleansed AlcathSus from the murder of his son Callipolis, and erected the temple of Dionysus.

PBlymestor, A Thracian king. He mur­dered Polydorus, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted to his protection, and was blinded by Hecuba and the captive Trojan women. (Cp. polydorus.)

P51ymnla. See polyhymnia.

Polynlces (Gr. PdluneikCs). Son of (Edlpus and locaste, was driven out of Thebes by his brother EteScles (see (EDIPUS), and fled to Adrastus (q.v.) of Argos, who gave him his daughter Argia in marriage, and brought about the expedition of the Seven against

Thebes in order to restore him. He fell in single combat with Eteocles. His body, which had been thrown to the birds, was buried by his sister AntlgSne (q.v.). His son was Thersander (q.v.).

PSlyphemus. Son of POseidon and the Nymph Thfiosa; the one-eyed Cyclops, who held Odysseus prisoner in his cave and ate several of the companions, until the hero made him drunk and blinded him. Later legends made him the lover of the beautiful Nymph Galatea.

P51yptych6n. See. diptychon.

Pdlytechnus. See AfiDON.

P51yx6na. Daughter of Priam and Hecuba, the betrothed of Achilles, who, at his wedding with her in the temple of the Thymbrsean Apollo, was killed by Paris. After the fall of Troy the shade of Achilles demanded the expiation of his death with her blood, and she was sacrificed on his funeral pyre.

Pomerium. A name given by the Romans to the space, originally along the city-wall within and without, which was left vacant and reckoned holy. This space was marked off by stones, and in respect to the auspices formed the limit between city and country. [See Livy, i 44, and Cicero, De Natura Dcoruni ii 11, ed. J. B. Mayor.]

The old Pomerium remained unchanged until the time of Sulla; after him it was again extended by Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian and Titus, Hadrian, and probably also Trajan and Aurelian. An extension of the Pomerium was only ad­missible on the ground of an extension of the legal boundaries of the Empire. [Tacitus, Ann. xii 23.]

Pomona. The Latin goddess of fruit trees, who in Rome had a flamen of her own (Pomonalis). Like Vertumnus, who was regarded as her husband, she was particu­larly honoured in the country. Art repre­sents her as a fair damsel, with fruits in her bosom, and the pruning-knife in her hand.

Pompelus Trogns. A contemporary of Livy, author of the first Roman general history. He was of Gaulish origin; his grandfather received the Roman citizenship from Pompeius in the Sertorian War, and his father served under Caesar, and discharged at the same time the offices of a secretary, an ambassador, and a keeper of the seals. His extensive work in 44 books was drawn from Greek sources, and was entitled His-tdrice Philipplcce, because the history of the various peoples was grouped round the

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