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499

FODALIRIUS——POLYBIUS.

be identified with certainty), in which the assemblies of the people were held.

P6dallrlus. Son of Asclepius and EpiBne. Like his brother Maclmon (q.v.), leech to the Greeks before Troy, and a brave warrior besides.

Pddarces. (1) The name of Priam (q.v.) in his youth.

(2) Brother of Protfellaus (q.v.), and after his death commander of his troops.

P6darge (" the swift-footed "). One of the Harpies (q.v.).

Pceas. King of the Malians at the foot of (Eta. He set light to the pyre of Heracles, in return for which the hero gave him his bow and his poisoned arrows. His son was Philoctetes (q.r.).

Polemarch. (1) The third among the Athenian archons (q.v.). (2) Among the Spartans this was originally the designation of a high officer, who, without any specific command, was employed by the king for special duties. In later times it denoted the commander of a mSm (q.v.).

Pdlemon, The name of several Greek authors:

(1) The PMfgetes, the most celebrated of that class of writers (see periegetes). Born in the district of Troas, he afterwards settled at Athens, where he was presented with the citizenship, about 200 b.c. He there worked up the material which he had collected from inscriptions, dedications, and public monuments of all kinds, into a number of works (inter alia, on Athens, and on the holy road from Athens to Eleusis), which in succeeding times were much quoted and highly valued as a mine of archaeological facts, and of important points connected with the history of art. The fragments which are preserved enable us to recognise him as a well-read author.

(2) AntDniiis Polemon, the Sophist, or rhetorician; a native of LaSdlcea, who lived in the first half of the 2nd century A.D. and presided over a flourishing school of rhetoric in Smyrna. He was much esteemed by his contemporaries and in high favour with the emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. Towards the end of his life he was a martyr to the gout, and accordingly put an end to his life in his 56th year, by causing himself to be buried alive in the tomb of his ancestors at Laodicea. His fame was founded principally on the pithi­ness and adroitness of his improvisations. There are preserved two declamations by him, artificial variations upon the same theme [funeral orations in honour of Cynae-

girus and Callimachus, the generals who fell at Marathon].

Poletse. A financial board at Athen^, composed of ten members chosen yearly from the tribes by lot. Their chief duties were the leasing of the public taxes and the selling of confiscated goods. [Aristotle, On the Constitution of Athens, 47.)

Pallas (or Poliuchus, " protectress of the city "). A special name of Athene (q.v.) in many Greek cities, but particularly at Athens.

Pollux. (1) See dioscuri. (2) Julius Pollux. A Greek rhetorician, a native of Naucratis in Egypt, in the latter half of the 2nd century a.d., tutor of the emperor Commodus, from whom he received an appointment as a public teacher in Athens. His contemporaries, such as Lucian, ridi­culed him for his small capacity. [Lucian is supposed to have attacked him in his RhetOrum Prwceptor, his Lextphanes, and his De SaltatlOne, chap. 33.] We possess, from his hand a dictionary in ten books dedicated to his pupil. This is arranged, not in the order of the alphabet, but ac­cording to subjects. In spite of all its confusion, and its want of critical acumen, it throws much light on the language, literature, and antiquities of Greece.

Pdlysenus. A Greek writer, born in Macedonia, lived in the middle of the 2nd century a.d., as a rhetorician and advocate at Rome, under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. When the latter was setting out for the war against the Parthians in 162, Polysenns, being prevented by his age from taking part in the campaign, addressed to him a collection of military stratagems compiled from old writers, under the title Stratlylca, or StrMegemMA, in eight books. In spite of many serious errors, this labo­rious and copious collection is not without value for purposes of historical research.

Pfllyblna. One of the most important Greek historians, born about 204 b.c. at MegalfipOlts; the son of Lycortas, general of the Achaean League in 185-4 and after 183. Through his father, and his father's friend PhilSpoemen, he early acquired a deep in­sight into military and political affairs, and was afterwards entrusted with high federal offices, such as the commandership of the cavalry, the highest position next to the federal generalship. In this capacity he directed his efforts towards maintaining the independence of the Achaean League. As chief representative of the policy of neutrality during the war of the Romans

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