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PLOUGH——PLUTARCH,

(Relief on the pedestal of a statue of Derneter, found in Magn Wagen und Fa/mi-erke del- Alien, p. 34.)

Plotinus died in 270, on the estate of a friend in Campania. With the 50th year of his age he had begun to reduce his teach­ing to a written form: the fifty-four trea­tises, which have been preserved to us, were published after his death by his pupi! and biographer Porphyry, who revised their style and arranged them in order; they were published in six Enngads (sets of nine books). Plotinus was the first to give a systematic development to the Neo-Platonic doctrine, or, at least, the first to put it forth in writing, not indeed with the charm of the Platonic dialogues, still less with their dialectic force, but nevertheless with depth of thought and in pithy, though at times careless and incorrect, language. It is true that there appears even in him a mystical tendency, especially in his doc­trine of the ecstatic elevation of the soul to the divine being, to which he himself (according to the testimony of Porphyry) attained on four occasions ; but he is still completely free from the phantastic and superstitions character of the later Neo-Platonism.

Plough (Gr. arOtron; Lat. aratritm). This well-known agricultural implement, according to the story generally current in

Greece, was an invention of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture, who taught its use to Triptolemus (q.v.). Originally it was constructed of a strong, hook-shaped piece of timber, whereof the longer end (Gr. histoboeus; Lat. ten's) served at once as plough-tail and pole, while the other acted as sharebeam (Gr. ilymd; Lat. denials). This was fitted in front with the share (Gr. hynis; Lat. vwne.r), and behind with the upright plough-tail (Gr. Mietle ; Lat. sttva). At the end of the pole was affixed the yoke, in which the oxen or mules by which it was to be drawn were harnessed (see cuts). Besides the natural hook-shaped

plough, we have, as early as Hesiod (8th century b.c.), a notice of the artificially constructed instrument, in which the main parts, the pole, the share-beam, and the plough-stock (gyes) connecting them, were of different sorts of wood [Works and Days, 425-434]. Roman ploughs had also two earth-boards (aures), which served to smooth the furrow [Vergil, Georgic i 172].

(2) ITALIAN PLOUGH AND PLOUGHMAN.

(From an ancient bronze, found at Areazo; Micali, Monn-menti per servvre alia Storia A. ant. Popoli Ital., pi. 114.)

The plaustraratrum (wagon-plough) used in Upper Italy was a different kind. In this the plough-stock rested on two low wheels, the pole being let into the axle. [In Pliny, N. H. xviii 172, the MSS have

Hardouin into word is found

plaumornti, altered by

plaustraratri

Neither elsewhere.]

Plutarch. A Greek writer of biographies and mis­cellaneous works, who was born at Chseronea in Boeotia, about 50 a.d. He came of a distinguished and wealthy family, and enjoyed a careful education. His philosophical training he received at Athens, espe­cially in the school of the Peripatetic Ammonius [of Lamptree in Attica, who is identified with Ammonius] the Egyptian. After this he made several journeys and stayed a considerable time in Rome, where he gave public lectures on philosophy, was in friendly intercourse with persons of distinction, and conducted the education of the future emperor Hadrian. Prom Trajan he received consular rank, and by Hadrian he was in his old age named procurator of Greece. He died about 120 in his native town, in which he held the office of archon and of priest of the Pythian Apollo.

His fame as an author is founded princi­pally upon his Parallel Lives. These he probably prepared in Rome under the reign

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