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PHYLLIS——PHYSICIANS.

the phyle} and divided into three phr&tricv (brotherhoods, see phratria), each phratria being subdivided into thirty families. Each family contained about thirty households, and was named after a supposed common progenitor, in whose honour the households celebrated a common cult. Similarly the phratria; and phylce were united by the worship of special protecting deities. These old Ionic phylce were suppressed by Clis­thenes, who divided the people into ten entirely different phylce, named after ancient heroes (ErechthcU, jEgKs, Pandlonls, LSfintis, Acamantis, (Enels, Cecropls, Hippdthfmtls, Aiantls, AntWcMs). They were subdivided into fifty naucrariai and one hundred deini (q.v.).

In 307 B.C., in honour of Demetrius Polior-cetes and his father Antigonus, the phyla; were increased by two,called Demetrfas and Antigonis, which names were afterwards changed, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphia of Egypt and Attalus I of Pergamon, into Ptolcmais and Attdlis. In later times, another, Adriarils, was added in honour of the emperor Hadrian. Besides priests for the cult of their eponymous hero, the phylce had presidents, called phylarchl, and trea­surers (tamlce). The assemblies were always held in Athens, and were concerned, not only with the special affairs of thephylc, but also with State business, especially the notifi­cation of the persons liable to State burdens (See leitourgia.) The ten phylae of Clisthenes served also as a foundation for the organization of the army. The forces were raised when required from the muster-roll of the phylce, and divided accordingly into ten battalions, which were themselves also called phylce.

The Dorian stock was_generally divided into three phylce: Hylleis, Dymanes. and Pamphyll, purporting to be named after Hyllus, son of Heracles, and Dymau and Pamphylus, sons of king ^Egimlus. When families not of Dorian origin formed part of the forces of the State, they constituted an additional pliylc. In the purely Dorian state of Sparta the three phylce. were divided into thirty obce, answering to the families at Athens.

Phyllis. Daughter of the Thracian king Sithon. From despair at the delay of her betrothed Demophoon (q.v., 2) in coming to wed her, she put an end to her life, and was changed into an almond tree. [Ovid, Hcroicles, 2.]

Physicians. The greeks traced the origin of the healing art to a deified son of

1 the healing god Apollo and a pupil of the sage centaur Chiron; viz. Asclepius, whose I sons Podalirius and Machaon, in Homeric | poetry, act before Troy both as warriors and as surgeons. The temples of Asclepius, distinguished for their healthy situation on headlands and lofty hills, in the midst of groves and near medicinal springs, were much resorted to as sanatoria, especially those at Epidauros, Cnidus, and Cos, and were for centuries the chief seats of the gradual development of leechcraft. The priests, who styled themselves Ascleplddce, i.e. descendants of Asclepius, made use of memoranda on the treatment of patients, contained partly in the votive tablets which these hung up in the temple, and partly in the temple chronicles. Thus in course of time they collected a varied stock of experi­mental maxims, which were handed down from father to son. Some of the Asclepiada practised their art singly, as travelling physicians, but were bound by oath to teach it to Asclepiadae alone. At the same time there were not wanting physicians who, standing outside of that close corporation, practised medicine independently as a means of living ; but they were less highly regarded than the Asclepiadse, and never I achieved a higher standing till the healing I art had burst its narrow limits and had expanded into a free science. This was brought about mainly by the influence of philosophy, which, beginning with Pytha­goras, himself a proficient in the art, and continuing chiefly under EmpedScles and 1 Democritus, drew medicine within the I range of her researches. Into literature ' the healing art was introduced by hippo­crates, an Asclepiad of Cos, born about 460 b.c., who combined the hereditary wisdom of his race with the spirit of speculative philosophy.

Besides physicians who were paid for their trouble by their respective patients, we find as early as the 6th century, at Athens chiefly, but in other places too, public phy­sicians appointed and remunerated by the State. Some went to their patients' houses, others had rooms where they were consulted by their patients. They often kept assistants, both free and slaves ; and they manufactured their own medicines. The style of living adopted by many physicians points to respect­able incomes: Democedes, a public physician at Athens in the 6th century, had a salary of 100 minae (about £333). At Alexandria, thanks to the munificence of the Ptolemies, medicine made considerable progress, chiefly

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