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PHRIXUS——PHYLE.

enrolled in the register of phraKrgs, or members of the phratria of their natural or adoptive father. This was done by the phratriarclii(presidents) at the chief festival of the phratrice, the Apaturia (q.v.). Newly married husbands also introduced their wives into the phratria. Each phratria had a separate place of worship (phratridri), with the altars of its deities. Zeus and Athene were common to all, but each phratria worshipped other special deities of its own.

Phrixus. Son of Athamas and NSphe'le, threatened with death as a sacrifice through the malice of his stepmother Ino, escaped with his sister Helle on a ram with golden fleece, sent him by Zeus, Hermes, or Nophele. Helle was drowned on the way in the sea which bears her name, the Helles­pont ; but Phrixus arrived safely in Col­chis, where he sacrificed the ram to Zeus as the " aider of flight " (Zeus Phyxlds), and presented the golden fleece to king Acetes. Acetes hung it on an oak in the grove of Ares, and gave Phrixus his daughter Chal-ciope to wife. Phrixus sent his sons Cytissorus and Argus home. The former saved his grandfather Athamas from being sacrificed; the latter built the ship Argo, which was named after him. (See athamas and argonauts.)

Phrynlchus. (1) A Greek tragic poet, of Athens, an older contemporary of jEschylus. He won his first victory as early as 511 b.c. He rendered a great service to the develop­ment of the drama by introducing an actor distinct from the leader of the chorus, and so laying the foundation for the dialogue. But the dialogue was still quite subordinate to the lyrics of the chorus. In this depart- ; ment he won extraordinary celebrity by the grace and melody of his verses, which continued to be sung at Athens long after. Besides mythical subjects, he dealt with events of contemporary history, e.g. the con­quest of Miletus by the Persians. At the representation of that event the audience burst into tears, and the poet was fined 1,000 drachmae for recalling the disasters of his country, all further performance of the piece being prohibited [Herod., vi 21]. Again, in his Phoenissa? (so named after the chorus of Sidonian women) he dealt with j the battle of Salamls. This play, which I was put on the stage by Themistocles in 478, was the model of Jischylus' Persce. Phrynichus, like ^Eschylus, is said to have died in Sicily. We only possess the titles of nine of his plays and a few fragmen ts.

(2) A Greek poet of Athens; one of the less important writers of the Old Attic Comedy, and a frequent butt of the other comic poets. In b.c. 405, however, his Muses took the second prize after Aristophanes' Frogs. We have only short fragments of about ten of his plays.

(3) A Greek Sophist, who lived in the second half of the 3rd century A.D. in Bithynia; author of a Selection of Attic Verbs and Nouns, compiled with great strictness in the exclusion of all but the best Attic forms. We have also notable excerpts from a work of his in thirty-seven books, dedicated to the emperor Commodus, and entitled the Sophistic Armoury (Pdra-sceue). It was founded on the most compre­hensive learning, and designed to supply the orator with everything necessary for good and pure expression. The arrangement is alphabetical, and it includes examples from the best authors, the different styles being carefully distinguished.

Phylarchus. (1) A Greek historian, born probably at Naucratls in Egypt about 210 b.c., lived long at SIcyon, afterwards in Athens; author of a great historical work in 28 books, dealing with the fifty years from the invasion of the Peloponnesus by Pyrrhus to the death of CleSmenes, king of Sparta (272-221). His enthusiastic admiration of that monarch appears to be the cause of the severe judgment passed on Phylarchus by Pfilyblus [ii 56], who represents the pre­judiced Achaean view. His style was lively and attractive, but unduly sensational. His work was much used by Trogus Pompeius and by Plutarch [in his lives of ClSSmenes and Aratus]. Only a few fragments remain.

(2) The Athenian term for (a) the presi­dent of a phyle (q.v.); (i) one of the ten subordinate officers commanding the citizen cavalry. (See hippeis.)

Phyle. The Greek term for a division of a nation, connected together by (supposed) descent from a common ancestor of the stock. Thus the population of Attica, even before Solon, was divided into four phyke, tracing their origin from four legendary sons of Ion, and called GSlSontes, HoplftSs, jEglcires, and Argddes. Probably the division was local, the names referring to the peculiarity or main occupation of the members of each division; for Hopletes appears to mean warriors, jEgicores, goat­herds, and Argades, agriculturalists. The meaning of Geleontes (or Teleontes), how­ever, is quite uncertain. Each phyle was presided over by a phylobdsffieus (king of

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