The Ancient Library

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On this page: Phobetor – Phocus – Phocylides – Phoebe – Phoebus – Phoenix – Pholus – Phorbas – Phorcys – Phorminx – Phormis – Phoroneus – Photius – Phratria



of Ixion and CSronls; king of the powerful robber-tribe Phlegyee in the neighbourhood of the Boeotian Orchomfinus. To revenge his daughter (see asclepius), he set fire to the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and was killed with all his people either by the arrows of the god or by the bolt of Zeus. He had also to atone for his sin in the underworld.

PhSbetor. A dream-god. (See dreams.)

Phocus. Son of jEacus and the Nymph Psamathe; slain by his half-brothers Tela-mon and Peleus, who were therefore sent into banishment by .Sacus.

Phocylldes. A gnomic poet of Miletus, born about 540 b.c. He wrote in hexa­meters and in elegiac metre. Of his terse and pointed maxims, we have a few remain­ing. An admonitory poem in 230 hexameters, bearing his name, is the work of an Alex­andrine Jewish Christian, who took most of his material from the Old Testament.

Phoebe. A special name of ArtSmis as moon-goddess. (See selene.)

Phcebus. A special name for Apollo (q.v.).

Phoenix. Son of Amyntor and Hipp6-damla. Being banished by his father out of envy, he fled to Peleus, and was en­trusted by him with the education of his son Achilles (q.v.), whom he accompanied to Troy.

Pholus. A Centaur, inhabiting Mount Ph5l8e in Arcadia. When Heracles visited him on his expedition against the Eryman-thian boar, he opened in his guest's honour a cask of wine belonging to the Centaurs in common, presented by Dionysus. Allured by the strong scent of the wine, the Centaurs rushed up to the cave armed with trunks of trees and masses of rock, and fell upon Heracles. He drove them from the cave with firebrands, and slew some with his poisoned arrows. The rest took to flight (see chiron). The hospitable Pholus also met his death, having let fall on his foot an arrow, which he took from the body of one of the fallen, the wound proving rapidly fatal.

Phorbas. Son of, honoured as a hero by the Rhodians, for having come at the bidding of the oracle to free their island from a plague of serpents. He was placed u among the stars as the constel­lation OpMuchus (snake-holder), Another legend made him come from Thessaly to Elis, where he assisted kingAlector against PSlops, and as a reward received in mar­riage the king's sister Hyrmine, the mother of Augeas and Actor (see M6Ll6NlD.<E). Being a mighty boxer, he challenged in his

pride the gods themselves, but Apollo over­came and slew him.

Phorcjs. A Greek sea-god, son of Pontus and Ggea, brother of Nereus and Thaumas and of Eurybla and Ceto, by whom he begat the Graise, the Gorgons, and the dragon Ladon, who guarded the apples of Hes-perldgs. He is also called the father of the Nymph Th56sa, mother of the Hesperides, Sirens, and Scylla.

Phonninx. A Greek stringed instrument. (See cithara.)

Phormls, or Phormos. A Greek poet, writer of Dorian comedy. (See comedy.)

Phdroneus. Son of Inachus and the Ocean-nymph Mella, founder of the state of Argos. The origin of all culture, civil order, and religious rites in the Peloponnesus was ascribed to him. In particular, he was re­puted as the originator of the worship of Hera at Argos, and, like PrOmetheus else­where, as the man who first brought fire from heaven down to earth. Hence he was regarded as a national hero, and offerings were laid on his tomb. His daughter Nl6be was said to be the first mortal whom Zeus honoured with his love.

Photlus. A Greek scholar of the Byzan­tine period, Patriarch of Constantinople a.d. 857-867 and 871-886 ; died 891. Besides playing a prominent part in the ecclesias­tical controversies of his time, he was conspicuous for his wide reading of ancient literature. Apart from theological writings, he left two works which are of great service to the student of antiquity. The one, the BiblWthfc.a, is an account of 280 works, some of which are now lost, some only imperfectly preserved, which he read on his embassy to Assyria, with short notices and criticisms of matter and style, and in some cases more or less complete ab­stracts ; the other a Lexicon or alphabeti­cal glossary, of special value in connexion with the Greek orators and historians.

Phratrla (lit. brotherhood). Denoted among the Greeks the subdivision of a pliylS (q.v.1) embracing a number of families. In Attica the four old Ionic phylas contained three phratrice in each, twelve in all; and each phratria comprehended thirty families (see gennet^e). When the old phylce were suppressed by ClisthSnes, the phratrice remained in existence as religious associa­tions for the observance of the ancient forms of worship, which did not admit of being suppressed. They had, however, no political importance, except that the sons (by birth or adoption) of a citizen had to be

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