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the Corpus Inscriptionuin AUicarum, ii, no. 1054, contains the contract for the work, with full details of its structure and fittings.]
(3) Of Byzantium; a celebrated mechanician. He wrote, in the 2nd century B.C., a work on mechanics, of which only one hook, on the construction of engines of war, and portions of two others, on siege-warfare, are extant.
(4) [Philo of L&rissa, an Academic philosopher, a pupil of ClitSmachus. He came to Rome in 88 b.c., being one of a number of eminent Greeks who fled from Athens on the approach of its siege during the Mithridatic war. He was a man of versatile genius and a perfect master of the theory and practice of oratory. Cicero had scarcely heard him before all his inclination for Epicureanism was swept from his mind, and he surrendered himself wholly to the brilliant Academic (Brutus § 306; cp. De Nat. Dear, i §§ 17,113; Tusc. Disp. ii §§ 9, 26). One of his works, twice mentioned, though not by any definite title (Acad. i 13, ii 11), supplied Cicero with his historic account of the New Academy (Cicero's Acadcmica, ed. Reid, pp. 2, 52).]
(5) The Jew. Born of a priestly family at Alexandria, about 25 b.c., he carefully studied the different branches of Greek culture, and, in particular, acquired a knowledge of the Platonic philosophy, while in no way abandoning the study of the Scriptures or the creed of his nation. In 39 A.D. he went to Rome as an emissary to the emperor Caligula in the interest of his fellow countrymen, whose religious feelings were offended by a decree ordering them to place the statue of the deified emperor in their synagogues. This embassy, which led to no result, is described by him in a work which is still extant, though in an incomplete form.
Philo is the chief representative of the Graeco-Judaic philosophy. He wrote numerous Greek works in a style modelled on that of Plato. These are remarkable for moral earnestness, passionate enthusiasm, and vigour of thought. They include allegorical expositions of portions of the Scriptures, as well as works of ethical, historical, or political purport. Several of his works only survive in Armenian versions. His philosophy, especially his theology, is an endeavour to reconcile Platonism with Judaism.
(6) [Philo Byblius, or Herennius Byblius. • A Roman grammarian, born at Byblus in Phoenicia. His life extended from about
the time of Nero to that of Hadrian. A considerable fragment of his " translation " of the ancient Phoanician writer Sanchu-nlathon is preserved in the first book of the PrceparatlS Evangllica of Eusebius.]
PhI18ch6rus. A Greek historian, living at Athens between 306 and 260. As an upholder of national liberty he was among the bitterest opponents of Demetrius Psllorcetes and of his son AntigSnus GSnatas, who put him to death after the conquest of Athena. Of his works, the Atthis was a history of Athens from the earliest times to 262 b.c., in seventeen books. It was highly esteemed and often quoted for its wealth of facts and thoroughness of investigation, especially as regards chronology. We still possess a considerable number of fragments.
PhilScles. A Greek tragedian, son of ^Eschylus' sister. He wrote a hundred plays in the manner of jEschylus, and won the prize against Sophocles' (Edlpus Tyrannus. Only scanty fragments of his plays remain. The drama was also cultivated by his sons Morsimus and Melanthius, by Morsimus' son Astydamas (about 399 B.C.), and again by the sons of the latter, Astydamas and Philocles.
Phlloctetes. The son of Pceas, king of the Malians in (Eta. He inherited the bow and arrqws of Heracles (q.v,). He was leader of seven ships in the expedition against Troy; but, on the way out, was bitten by a snake at Lemnos, or the small island of Chryse near Lemnos, and, on account of the intolerable stench caused by the wound, was abandoned at Lemnos on the advice of Odysseus. Here in his sickness he dragged out a miserable life till the tenth year of the war. Then, however, on account of Helenus' prophecy that Troy could only be conquered by the arrows of Heracles, Odysseus and DISmedes went to fetch him, and he was healed by Machaon. After he had slain Paris, Troy was conquered. He was one of the heroes who came safe home again. [The story of Philoctetes was dramatized by ^Eschylus and Euripides (b.c. 431), as well as by Sophocles (409). It is also the theme of numerous monuments of ancient art. See Jebb's introduction to Soph. Phil., p. xxxvii.]
Phllfldemus. A Greek philosopher of the Epicurean school, of Gadara in Palestine. He was a contemporary of Cicero, who praises his learning, and also his taste as a poet [De Finibus ii 119; in Pisonem, 68, TO]. We have thirty-four epigrams by him. chiefly on amatory and indelicate subjects: