The Ancient Library

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On this page: Pauson – Pavor – Pax – Peculatus – Peculium – Pedarii – Pedieis – Pegasus



brought encaustic painting to perfection. He painted chiefly children and flowers. One of his most famous pictures was the Flower Girl (StSphdnopKcus), representing the flower-girl Glycera, of whom he was enamoured in his youth [Pliny, AT. H., xxxv 12_3-127],

[Pauson. A Greek painter whom Aristotle contrasts with Polygnotus in terms implying that the former was a caricaturist (Poetics 2 § 2). Elsewhere Aristotle says that young people should not look at the pictures of Pauson, but rather at those of Polygnotus or of any other " ethical " artist (Politics viii 5 § 7). He is some­times identified with the Pauson who is mentioned with contempt by Aristophanes (Ach. 854, Thesm. 948, and Plutus, 602).] [J. E. S.]

Pavor. See pallor.

Pax. The Roman goddess of peace (Cp. ElRENB.)

Peculatus. The Roman term for mis­appropriation of public property, whether by officials (e.g. in the delivery of booty) or by private persons. Such offences, which seldom occurred in the more ancient times of the Republic, were then judged by the national tribunal. In later times they must have become more frequent, since various laws were issued against them, and a special court of justice (see qu^estio) was appointed to try them. Besides the payment of compensation, the condemned person suffered disgrace and banishment (inter-dictio aquas et ignis, see exilium), and, in the time of the Empire, transportation.

Pecullum. The Romans considered the master of the house (pdter fdmlticis) the lawful owner of all the earnings of the members of the family under his con­trol, whether bond or free (see familia). Whatever sum of money he gave to a grown up son or to a slave for his own use, was called thspeculium of the latter. This gift could be revoked at pleasure, and could not be disposed of by will. Augustus first granted this right to soldiers, in the case of property won in war (peculium castrense), and Constantine extended it to that gained in a civil office (peculium yi&sl castrense).

Pfidarli. Those members of the Roman Senate (q.v.) who had occupied no office of State, and hence took a lower rank. They might only share in the voting, but did not enjoy the right of expressing individual opinions.

PSdleis. See solonian constitution.

Pegasus. The winged Steed of the Fountain, named Pegasus, according to Hesiod [Theog. 281], because he was born at the springs (pegce) of Ocean. Begotten by Pfiseidon, he sprang forth with Chrysaor from the bleeding body of his mother Medusa, when her head was cut off' by Perseus. [See sculpture, fig. 1.] On his birth he soared into the air, and the spot

* PEGASUS AND BELLEROPHON. (Rome, Spada Palace.)

where he first rested was the acropolis of Corinth. While Pegasus paused there to drink at the fountain of Peirene,Beller6ph6n (q.v.) caught and tamed him, by the favour of Athene and Poseidon. It was on Pegasus that Bellerophon was mounted when per­forming his heroic exploits, including his conquest of the Chimsera. Afterwards, when Pegasus had thrown his rider, the steed flew upward to the immortals, to dwell in the palace of Zeus, and to bring him his thunder and lightning. By later writers, Pegasus is described as the steed

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