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tocracy, with the exclusive right to hold public offices, whether civil or religious. Nothing short of a decision by the comitia curiata could either remove any one from the patrician body or (on rare occasions) enrol a plebeian among the patricians. The contraction of marriages between patricians and plebeians was not allowed till 445 b.c. A violent struggle arose between the two parties, after the establishment of the Republic in 510 b.c., on the subject of the admission of the plebeians to State offices. This struggle lasted till 300 b.c., and the patricians were, step by step, forced to give up their exclusive right to one office after another. First of all, they had to give up the qusestorship (409), then the consulate (367), the dictatorship (356), the censorship (351), the prsetorship (338), and finally the most important priestly offices, the pontificate and the augnrship (300). Only politically unimportant offices were left reserved for them, the temporal office of intcrrex, and the priestly offices of rex sacrSrum and the three flamine.s maiBres. The political importance which the patrician comitia curiata possessed, through its right to confirm the decisions of the comitia centuriata, was lost in 286. The comitia trtbuta, in which the plebs had the preponderance, thus became the most important organ of the democracy.
An aristocracy of holders of public offices was thus formed, consisting of the patricians together with the more important plebeian families. The members of such families, whether patrician or plebeian, were called nobiles. The number of patrician families dwindled greatly owing to the civil wars (on their number towards the end of the Republic, see gens). Caesar and Augustus increased them by introducing plebeian families, and subsequent emperors gave the patriciate as a distinction. Under Constantine the Great, patricius became a personal title, which conferred a rank immediately below the consuls. The external distinctive marks of a patrician were the tunica latlclavla (see tunica) and a peculiar sort of shoe (see calcehs) adorned with an ivory crescent (luniUa).
Patroclus [Patruclus, almost always in Iliad, Patroclus once only in vocative (II. xix 287)]. Son of Menoatius and Sthenele, the bosom friend of Achilles. He fell before Troy by the hand of Hector (see achilles). Patronus. The Roman term for the protector of a single client, or of a whole
community (see clientes); the emancipator in relation to his freedman; and the judicial representative of accuser or accused. For the distinction between patronus and advo-catus, see the latter.
Paulus. (1) lulius. A Roman jurist of high repute in the beginning of the 3rd century A.D., contemporary with Papinian and Ulpian. With the former, he was legal assessor to the emperor Septimius Severus. With the latter, he was prce-fectus prcetorlo under Alexander Severus, after he had been sent into exile by Helio-gabalus. He was most productive as a legal author, but in literary skill and finish stood far below his two contemporaries. The extracts from his numerous monographs or more comprehensive works form a sixth part of the " Digest." Besides these extracts his Sentential, a very popular compendium of undisputed principles on the most frequent points of law, has been preserved in a shortened form.
(2) See festus (1).
Pausanlas. The Greek traveller and geographer, a native of Lydia. He explored Greece, Macedonia, Asia, and Africa; and then, in the second half of the 2nd century a.d., settled in Rome, where he composed a Pe'riegesls or Itinerary of Greece in ten books. Book i includes Attica and Megarls; ii, Corinth with Sicyon, Phllus, Argolis, jEgina, and the other neighbouring islands ; iii, Laconia; iv, Messenia; v, vi, Elis and Olympia; vii, Achasa j viii, Arcadia; ix, Boeotia: x, Phocis and LScris. The work is founded on notes, taken on the spot, from his own observation and inquiry from the natives of the country, on the subject of the religious cults and the monuments of art and architecture. Together with these there are topographical and historical notices, in working up which Pausanias took into consideration the accounts of other authors, poeta as well aa prose writers. Although his account is not without numerous inaccuracies, omissions, and mistakes, it is yet of inestimable value for our knowledge of ancient Greece, especially with regard to its mythology and its religious cults, but above all for the history of Greek art. The composition of his work (especially in the earlier books) shows little skill in plan, execution, or style.
Pauslas. A Greek painter, a pupil of Pamphilus and a follower of the Sicyonian school. He lived about 360 b.c. at Sicyon, and invented the art of painting vaulted ceilings, and also of foreshortening; he