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On this page: Pancratium – Pandareos – Pandion – Pandokeion – Pandora – Pandrosos – Panegyricus – Panisci – Pan'S Pipe – Pantheon

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PANCRATIUM——PANTHEON,

[All the ancient authorities are collected by Michaelis, Der Parthenon, pp. 318-333.)

Pancratium. The combination of boxing and wrestling in Greek gymnastics (q.v.).

Pandargos, of Miletus, the son of Meropus, stole from Minos of Crete a living dog made of gold, the work of Hephaestus, which was the guardian of the temple of Zeus, and gave it to Tantalus to keep it safely. When Zeus demanded the dog back, Pandareos fled with his wife Harmothea to Sicily, where both were turned into stones. For his daughter Aedon, sue aedon. Of his two other daughters (Merope and CleQdora or Cameira and Clytea), Homer [Od, xx 66-78] relates that they were brought up by AphrSdite, after their early bereavement, and were endowed by Hera with beauty and wisdom, by Artemis with lofty stature, and by Athene with skill in handiwork; but while their foster-mother went to Olympus to implore Zeus to grant the maidens happy marriages, they were carried off by the Hirpies, and delivered to the Erlnj'Ss as servants, and thus expiated their father's guilt.

Pandion. (1) Son of Erichthonius, father of Procne and Erechtheus (q.v.).

(2) Son of Cecrops and Metiadusa, grand­son of Erechtheus, king of Athens. Driven into exile by the sons of his brother Metion, he went to Megara, where he married Py Ha, the daughter of king Py las, and inherited the kingdom. His sons, ^geus, Lycus, Pallas, and Nisus, regained Attica from the Metionldse, and the first three shared it among themselves, while Nisus (q.v.) re­ceived Megara.

PandSkeidn (Oreek). The Greek name for a kind of private inn which harboured and entertained travellers. (Cp. inns.)

Pandora (" the all-gifted"). The woman made out of earth by Hephaestus, and en­dowed by the gods with perfect charm and beauty, but also with deceit, nattering speech, and cunning thought, (See further under prometheus.)

Pandrfisos (Greek). Daughter of Cecrops of Athens, first priestess of Athene, honoured together with her in a sanctuary of her own, the PandrSseifin, on the Acropolis of Athens. (Cp. CECRoi'S.)

Panegjrlcus. The name given among the Greeks to a speech delivered before a pane-/lyrls; that is, an assembly of the whole nation on the occasion of the celebration of n festival, such as Pantithenwa and the four great national games. This oration had reference to the feast itself, or was

intended to inspire the assembled multitude with emulation, by praising the great deeds of their ancestors, and also to urge them to unanimous co-operation against their com­mon foes. The most famous compositions of this kind \vhich have been preserved are the Panegyricus and P&nathenalcus of Isocrates, [neither of which, however, was actually delivered in public.] In later times eulogies upon individuals were so named. This kind of composition was especially cultivated under the Roman Empire by Greeks and Romans. In Roman literature the most ancient example of this kind which remains is the eulogy of the emperot Trajan, delivered by the younger Pliny in the Senate, 100 a.d., thanking the emperor for conferring on him the consulate, a model which subsequent ages vainly endea­voured to imitate. It forms, together with eleven orations of Mamertinus, Eumenius, Nazarlus, Pacatus Drepanius, and other unknown representatives of the Gallic school of rhetoric, from the end of the 3rd and the whole of the 4th centuries a.d., the extant collection of the Panegyrici L&tini. Besides these, we possess similar orations by Symmachus, Ausonius, and Ennodius. There are also a considerable number of poetical panegyrics; e.g. one upon Messala, composed in the year 31 b.c., and wrongly attributed to Tibullus; one by an unknown author of the Neronian time upon Calpurnius Piso; and others by Claudian, Sidonius Apolll-naris, MerSbaudes, Corippus, Priscian, and Venantius Fortunatus (q.v.). Panisci. See pan. Pan's Pipe. See syrinx and past. Pantheon (properly Gr. Pantheion, " the all-divine place" ; Lat. Pantheum). The only ancient building in Rome whose walls and arches have been completely preserved. It is one of the greatest architectural monuments of antiquity, and is fitted, as no other building is, to show us the solidity, boldness, and splendour of Roman architec­ture. The original object of the temple, which, according to the inscription on the architrave of its porch, was built by Agrippa in 27 b.c., is unknown. We only know that the seven principal niches of the interior were once occupied by images of the gods. We have evidence that among them were Mars and Venus, the patron deities of the Julian house, and the deified Csesar, the principal representative of that house. In later times the term Pantheon was wrongly supposed to mean a temple of all the gods. This view prompted Pope

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