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PAN——PANATHEN.EA.

in drawing was introduced among the sub­jects of Greek education [Pliny, N. H. xxxv 76. The only work of this artist now known to us by name is his picture of the Suppliant Hemdldce, to which Aristophanes alludes in the Plutus, 385].

Pan (lit. " the pasturer ") [from the same root as the Lat. pastor and pcmis\. Ori­ginally an Arcadian god of hills and woods, the protecting deity of flocks, herdsmen, and hunters; the son either of Hermes and a daughter of Dryops, or of Zeus and the Arcadian Nymph Callisto. The ancients represented him with a puck-nose and bearded, with shaggy hair, two horns, and goat's feet. They imagined him as wan­dering by day through hill and dale with the Nymphs, guarding the flocks, especi­ally the goats, and chasing wild animals [Homeric Hymn, xix]. In the heat of noonday he sleeps, and is then very sensitive to any disturbance; therefore at this time no shepherd blows his pipe (Theocr. i 16]. In ihe evening, sit­ting in front of hisgrotto,he plays on the syrinx, or Pan's pipe, which he himself in­vented. He is even said to have formed it from the reed into whicli a Nymph named Syrinx was changed •while fleeing from his love [Ovid, Met. i705]. There are many other tales of his lova adventures with the Nymphs. As he ex­cites the sudden (" panic") terror which attacks the wanderer in forest solitudes, so he was also said to have caused the panic which put to flight the Persians at Marathon; and on this account a grotto in the Acropolis of Athens was dedicated to him, and he was honoured with an annual sacrifice and torch procession [Herod., vi 1051. As a spirit of the woodland, he is also a god of prophecy, and hence there were oraclss of Pan Like the similar figures of

Silenus and the Satyrs, he was brought into I connexion with Dionysus, in whose train he proved himself useful on his Indian expedi­tion by means of the terror he inspired. As one of the gods of nature, he was one of the companions of Cybele, and by reason of his amorousness, he is associated with Aphrodite. In later times, owing to a misinterpretation of his name (as though it stood for pan, "the universe"), he was made a symbol of the universe. His cult was chiefly confined to the country. He was either worshipped with the Nymphs in grottoes, or his image was set up under the trees, where his worshippers brought it simple offerings such as milk, honey, must, rams, or lambs. Mountains, caves, old oaks, and pine trees, and the tortoise, were sacred to him; his attributes are the syrinx, a shepherd's crook, a garland of pine leaves or a twig of the pine tree. The fancy of later times invented as his companions young Pans, or Pdnisci, a species of imps of the forest, who were fabled to torment mankind by all sorts of apparitions, nightmares, and evil dreams. The Romans identified Pan with the Italian Faunus (y.v.).

Pansetius. A Greek philosopher o/ Rhodes, born about 180 B.C.; the most impor­tant representative of Stoicism in his time From Athens, where he had received his education, he went to Rome, about 156 b.c. Being there received into the circle of the younger Scipio and of Laeliua, he was able to gain numerous adherents among the Roman nobles by his skill in softening the harshness and subtlety of the Stoic teaching, and in representing it in a refined and polished form. After Scipio's death (129) he returned to Athens, where he died, as the head of the Stoic school, about 111. Only unimportant fragments of his writings remain. The most important of them, the Treatise on Duty, supplied the groundwork of the De 0/ffcUs of (Jicero.

Panathenasa (Gr. Pdnatlienma}. The most ancient and most important of Athenian festivals. It was celebrated in honour of Athene, the patron deity of Athens. Claim­ing to have been founded as early as by Eriehthomus, it is said to have been origi­nally named only Atltencea, and to have first received the name of Panathencea at the time when Theseus united all the inhabitants of Attica into one body. In memory of the union itself was kept the festival of the Syncecla, or Synacesia, on the 16th of Hecatombseon (July-August), which may be regarded as a kind of prepa.-

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