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matrons wore over the stfila, in the same way as the men wore the toga. They let one third fall down in front over the left shoulder, but drew the rest away over the back, and then either brought it forward over the right shoulder, or drew it under the right arm, but in either case threw the end back over the left arm or shoulder (sec cut). The palla could also be drawn over the head, just like the toga. Other women, who were not privileged to wear the stola, wore the palla over the tunic, folded together about the body, fastened together on the shoulders with buckles, and open on the right side, or held together in the same way with buckles. It then lay double over the breast and bad;, but fell down in one thickness to the feet.
Palladium (Gr. palladion). An old car-ven image in the citadel at Troy, on which the prosperity of the city depended. It is said to have been three cubits high, with feet shut close together, an upraised spear in its right hand, and in its left either a distaff and spindle, or a shield. Athene was said to have made it as an image of Pallas, daughter of Triton, whom she had slain unawares while playing at wrestling. Legends differ in their account of the manner of its coming to Troy. According to one of them, Pallas gave it as a dowry to Chryse, the bride of Dardauus,_and he brought it to Dardania, whence Ilus carried it to Troy; according to another, Zeus caused it to fall -down to Ilus (q.v.) from heaven. Since Troy could not be conquered so long as it possessed this image, DlSmedes stole it with the help of Odysseus and brought it to Argos. But, according to the Attic story, it was DemophSon (q.v., 2) of Athens who deprived him of it. The palladium preserved in Rome in the temple of Vesta was traced back to ./Eneas, the assumption being that there had been a second image in Troy besides that stolen by Diomedes. Other Italian towns also boasted of the possession of a palladium.
Palladlus (Rutilius Taurus jEmUlanus). A Latin author, in the 4th century a.d., who, by borrowing from the teaching of his predecessors and by his own experience, composed a work upon husbandry in fourteen books. Of these the first contains general precepts; books ii-xiii give the operations of agriculture in each of the successive months, while the fourteenth treats of the grafting of trees, in eighty-five elegiac couplets. His book, though written in dry and feeble language, was
much used in the Middle Ages on account of its practical arrangement.
Pallium. The Roman name for a large Grecian cloak, which was also worn by Romans among the Greeks. It was especially the garb of the philosophers. In Rome it was also worn by courtesans.
Pallor and Pavor (lit. " Paleness and Fright"). The Roman personifications of terror, and companions of the war-god Mars. As early as the time of king Tullus Hostilius sanctuaries are said to have been erected in their honour. On coins Pallor was represented as a boy with dishevelled hair and perturbed bearing, and Pavor as a man with an expression of horror and with bristling hair.
Palton. The lance of the Greek cavalry. (See weapons.) [Also a light spear used by the Persian cavalry (Xen., Cyrop. iv 3, 9; vi 2, 16).]
Falndamentnm. The short, red mantle of Roman generals, fastened on the left shoulder and worn over the armour. They assumed it on the Capitol on their departure to the war, but on their return they exchanged it for the tOga, the garb of peace, before their entry into the city. Under the Empire, when the emperor was the commander-in-chief, the purple paluda-mentum became exclusively a token of imperial power. It only became the usual attire of the emperors in the 3rd century after Christ. Accordingly, after that time entrance on imperial power was termed " assuming the purple."
Pamphllns. A Greek painter of Am-phipolis in Macedonia, who lived in the first half of the 4th century b.c., chiefly at Sicj'on, as head of the school there founded by his master Eupompus. He is the originator of the scientific teaching of art: he traced back all practice of art to scientific principles. He maintained that painting could not be brought to perfection without arithmetic and geometry. In spite of the fact that his fee for instruction was one talent (£200), the number of his pupils was considerable; the greatest among them being Apelles. Through his influence instruction